) uses electromagnetic fields
to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically-stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader's interrogating radio waves
. Active tags have a local power source (such as a battery) and may operate hundreds of meters from the RFID reader. Unlike a barcode
, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method for Automatic Identification and Data Capture
RFID tags are used in many industries, for example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line; RFID-tagged pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses; and implanting RFID microchips
in livestock and pets allows for positive identification of animals.
Since RFID tags can be attached to cash, clothing, and possessions, or implanted in animals and people, the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised serious privacy concerns. These concerns resulted in standard specifications development addressing privacy and security issues. ISO/IEC 18000
and ISO/IEC 29167 use on-chip cryptography
methods for untraceability, tag and reader authentication
, and over-the-air privacy. ISO/IEC 20248
specifies a digital signature
data structure for RFID and barcodes
providing data, source and read method authenticity. This work is done within ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques
. Tags can also be used in shops to expedite checkout, and to prevent theft by customers and employees. Read more...