is a North American
country consisting of ten provinces and three territories
. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean
in the east to the Pacific Ocean
in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean
. It is the world's second largest country by total area
. Canada's common border
with the United States
to the south and northwest is the longest in the world.
The land that is now Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. One of the world's highly developed countries, Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G8, G-20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN.
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The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
(also known as The Charter of Rights and Freedoms
or simply The Charter
) is a bill of rights
entrenched in the Constitution of Canada
. It forms the first part of the Constitution Act, 1982
. The Charter
guarantees certain political
and civil rights
of people in Canada
from the policies and actions of all levels of government
. It is designed to unify Canadians around a set of principles that embody those rights.
The Charter was preceded by the Canadian Bill of Rights, which was enacted in 1960. However, the Bill of Rights was only a federal statute, rather than a constitutional document. As a federal statute, it was limited in scope, it was easily amendable by Parliament and it had no application to provincial laws. The Supreme Court of Canada also narrowly interpreted the Bill of Rights and the Court was reluctant to declare laws inoperative. The relative ineffectiveness of the Canadian Bill of Rights motivated many to improve rights protections in Canada. The movement for human rights and freedoms that emerged after World War II also wanted to entrench the principles enunciated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The British Parliament formally enacted the Charter as a part of the Canada Act 1982 at the request of the Parliament of Canada in 1982, the result of the efforts of the Government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau.
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(born July 7, 1969) is a Canadian
professional ice hockey centre
, who has played his entire National Hockey League
career with the Quebec Nordiques
franchise and is currently an Unrestricted Free Agent
. In his 19-year tenure, Sakic has won the Stanley Cup
twice, various NHL trophies, and has been voted into 13 NHL All-Star Games
. He is regarded as one of the most able team leaders to ever play in the league, and has been able to motivate his team throughout his entire career to play at a winning level.
Over the course of his career, Sakic has been one of the most productive forwards in the game, having twice scored 50 goals and earning at least 100 points in six different seasons. His wrist shot, considered to be one of the best in the NHL, has been the source of much of his production. At the conclusion of the 2006–07 NHL season, he was the 9th all-time points leader in the NHL, as well as 14th in all-time goals and 11th in all-time assists. During the 2002 Winter Olympics, Sakic helped lead Team Canada to its first gold medal in 50 years, and was voted as the tournament's most valuable player. He has represented the team in six other international competitions, including the 1998 and 2006 Winter Olympics. After the 2000–01 NHL season, Sakic was named the MVP of the NHL by the hockey writers and his fellow players.
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Symbols of Canada -
Did you know... -
- ... that the forthcoming Canadian film Smash Cut will feature a cameo appearance by filmmaker Herschell Gordon Lewis who invented the splatter film genre?
- ...that one can live, work, and play in Fermont, Quebec without going outside, because the town is bordered on two sides by a long building containing living, shopping, work and recreational facilities all under one roof?
- ...that in the Calgary Flames' 1988-89 season, they became the only visiting team to defeat the Montreal Canadiens to win the Stanley Cup in the Montreal Forum?
- ... that in Saskatchewan, Oban was known for having the last Interlocking tower at the CNR and CPR level crossing, until it was closed in 1990?
- ...that the Kipawa River in Quebec, Canada, is being considered for hydroelectric development which would completely divert it?
Canada on sister projects