is a North American
country consisting of ten provinces and three territories
. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean
in the east to the Pacific Ocean
in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean
. It is the world's second largest country by total area
. Canada's common border
with the United States
to the south and northwest is the longest in the world.
The land that is now Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. One of the world's highly developed countries, Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G7, G-20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN.
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The District Municipality of Tumbler Ridge
is a small town in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains
in northeastern British Columbia
, and a member municipality
of the Peace River Regional District
. The municipality of 1,574 square kilometres (608 sq mi), with its population of 2,454 people, incorporates a townsite and a large area of mostly Crown land
. The housing and municipal infrastructure, along with regional infrastructure connecting the new town
to other municipalities, were built simultaneously in 1981 by the provincial government to service the coal industry as part of the British Columbia Resources Investment Corporation
's Northeast Coal project.
In 1981, a consortium of Japanese steel mills agreed to purchase 100 million tonnes of coal over 15 years for US$7.5 billion from two mining companies, Denison Mines Inc. and the Teck Corporation who were to operate the Quintette mine and the Bullmoose mine, respectively. Declining global coal prices after 1981, and weakening Asian markets in the late 1990s, made the town's future uncertain and kept it from achieving its projected population of 10,000 people. The uncertainty dissuaded investment and kept the economy from diversifying. When price reductions were forced onto the mines, the Quintette mine was closed in 2000 production and the town lost about half its population.
After dinosaur footprints, fossils, and bones were discovered in the municipality, along with fossils of Triassic fishes and cretaceous plants, the Peace Region Paleontology Research Centre opened in 2003. The research centre and a dinosaur museum were funded in part by the federal Western Economic Diversification Canada to decrease economic dependence on the coal industry. Economic diversification has also occurred with oil and gas exploration, forestry, and recreational tourism. Nearby recreational destinations include numerous trails, mountains, waterfalls, snowmobiling areas and provincial parks, such as the Monkman Provincial Park, Bearhole Lake Provincial Park, and the Gwillim Lake Provincial Park.
Selected biography -
(born May 11, 1951) is a Canadian politician
and served as the 13th Premier of Alberta
, Canada, from 2006 to 2011. The grandson of Ukrainian
immigrants, Stelmach was born and raised on a farm near Lamont
and speaks fluent Ukrainian. He spent his entire pre-political adult life as a farmer, except for some time spent studying at the University of Alberta
. His first foray into politics was a 1986 municipal election, when he was elected to the county council of Lamont County
. A year into his term, he was appointed reeve
. He continued in this position until his entry into provincial politics.
In the 1993 provincial election, Stelmach was elected as the Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Vegreville-Viking (later Fort Saskatchewan-Vegreville). A Progressive Conservative, he served in the cabinets of Ralph Klein—at various times holding the portfolios of Intergovernmental Relations, Transportation, Infrastructure, and Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development—where he developed a reputation as a low-key politician who avoided the limelight. When Klein resigned the party's leadership in 2006, Stelmach was among the first candidates to replace him. After a third place finish on the first ballot of the leadership election, he won an upset second ballot victory over former provincial treasurer Jim Dinning.
In the news
Selected images -
Prime Minister Trudeau and U.S. President Trump meet in Washington, February 2017
Margaret Atwood is a Canadian poet, novelist, literary critic, essayist, inventor, teacher and environmental activist.
Tree-map of Canada's goods exports in 2014
Approximately 98% of Canadians can speak either or both English and French:
English – 56.9%
English and French – 16.1%
French – 21.3%
Sparsely populated area ( < 0.4 persons per km2)
Bill Reid's 1980 sculpture Raven and The First Men; the raven is a figure common to many of Canada's indigenous mythologies
The Quebec City–Windsor Corridor is the most densely populated and heavily industrialized region of Canada, spanning 1,200 kilometres (750 miles).
A political map of Canada showing its 10 provinces and 3 territories
Symbols of Canada -
Rosa acicularis also known as the prickly wild rose, the prickly rose, the bristly rose and the Arctic rose, is a species of wild rose with a Holarctic distribution. It is the official flower of the Canadian province of Alberta and is located throughout the province and Western Canada...
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