Portal:Canada/Selected biography

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Selected biographies list[edit]

Biographies 1–20[edit]

Portal:Canada/Selected biography/1

Wayne Gretzky

Wayne Gretzky (born 26 January 1961) is a retired Canadian professional ice hockey player who is currently part-owner and head coach of the Phoenix Coyotes.

Nicknamed "The Great One," Total Hockey: The Official Encyclopedia of the NHL calls Gretzky "the greatest player of all time." He is generally regarded as the best player of his era and has been called "the greatest hockey player ever" by many sportswriters, players, and coaches. He set 40 regular-season records, 15 playoff records, 6 All-Star records, won four Stanley Cups with the Edmonton Oilers, and won 9 MVP awards and 10 scoring titles. He is the only player ever to total over 200 points in a season (a feat that he accomplished four times in his career). In addition, he tallied over 100 points a season for 15 NHL seasons, 13 of them consecutively. He is the only player to have his number, 99, officially retired by the National Hockey League.


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Celine Dion

Celine Dion (born March 30, 1968) is a Canadian pop singer and occasional songwriter. Born to a large, impoverished family in Charlemagne, Quebec, Dion became a young star in Francophone Canada after her manager and future husband, René Angélil, mortgaged his home to finance her first record. She later gained recognition in parts of Europe and Asia after she won both the 1982 Yamaha World Popular Song Festival and the 1988 Eurovision Song Contest.

In 1990, Dion made her English language debut with the album Unison, published by Epic Records. During the 1990s, under the guidance of her husband, she achieved worldwide fame and success with several English and French records, and ended the decade as one of the most successful artists in pop music. After releasing over twenty-five albums during the 1980s and 1990s, Dion announced in 1999 that she was taking a break from entertainment in order to start a family and to focus on her husband/manager, who had been diagnosed with throat cancer. She returned to the music scene in 2002 with a more mature, exclusively adult contemporary, sound, but her album sales suffered a decline, and she signed a lucrative four-year contract to perform nightly in a five-star theatrical show at the Colosseum at Caesars Palace, Las Vegas.


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Louis Riel

Louis Riel (October 22, 1844 – November 16, 1885) was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies. He led two resistance movements against the Canadian government that sought to preserve Métis rights and culture as their homelands in the Northwest came progressively under the Canadian sphere of influence.

The first such resistance was the Red River Rebellion of 1869–1870. The provisional government established by Riel ultimately negotiated the terms under which the modern province of Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation. Riel was forced into exile in the United States as a result of the controversial execution of Thomas Scott during the rebellion. Despite this, he is frequently referred to as the "Father of Manitoba." While a fugitive, he was elected three times to the Canadian House of Commons, although he never assumed his seat. During these years, he was frustrated by having to remain in exile despite his growing belief that he was a divinely chosen leader and prophet, a belief which would later resurface and influence his actions. He married in 1881 while in exile in Montana, and fathered three children. He became a naturalized American citizen and was actively involved in the Republican party.


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Martin Brodeur

Martin Brodeur (born May 6, 1972) is a professional ice hockey goaltender who has played his entire National Hockey League career with the New Jersey Devils. In his 13-year tenure, he has led the team to three Stanley Cup championships and has taken them to the playoffs all but once. In addition to holding over thirty Devils franchise records, he is on pace to surpass Patrick Roy's career records for wins, games played and minutes played, as well as Terry Sawchuk's record for career shutouts, and Patrick Roy's record for career playoff shutouts.

Brodeur has been among the NHL's most consistent goaltenders over the past decade, winning at least 35 games each of the last ten seasons as well as being the only goalie in NHL history with six 40-win seasons. He is a three-time Vezina Trophy winner, a four-time Jennings Trophy winner, a nine-time NHL All Star, and one of only two NHL goaltenders to have scored goals in the regular season and the playoffs. In the 2006-07 NHL season, Brodeur surpassed Sawchuk and still-active Ed Belfour on the all-time wins list and Glenn Hall on the all-time shutouts list to rank 2nd and 3rd in those categories, respectively. He also passed Bernie Parent's record of 47 single-season wins with his 48th win on April 5, 2007.


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Peter Jennings

Peter Jennings (July 29, 1938 – August 7, 2005) was a Canadian-born journalist and news anchor. He was the sole anchor of ABC's World News Tonight from 1983 until his death in 2005 of complications from lung cancer. A high-school dropout, he transformed himself into one of America's most prominent journalists.

Jennings started his career early, hosting a Canadian radio show at the age of nine. In 1965, ABC News tapped him to anchor its flagship evening news program. His inexperience marred his first short stint in the anchor chair, and Jennings became a foreign correspondent in 1968, honing his reporting skills in the Middle East.

He returned as one of World News Tonight's three anchors in 1978, and was promoted to the role of sole anchor in 1983. Jennings formed part of the "Big Three" news anchors who dominated American evening news in the 1980s and 1990s. Having always been fascinated with the United States, Jennings became a dual citizen of Canada and the United States in 2003. His death, which closely followed the retirements of Tom Brokaw and Dan Rather, marked the end of the "Big Three" era.


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Leslie Nielsen

Leslie Nielsen (born February 11, 1926) is a Canadian-American comedian and actor. Although Nielsen’s acting career crossed a variety of genres in both television and movies, he achieved his greatest film success in comedies, including Airplane! and The Naked Gun series of films. His portrayal of serious characters seemingly oblivious of (and complicit in) their absurd surroundings gave Nielsen a reputation as a comedian. A series of later comedies attempted to emulate the popularity of his prior roles.

This paralleled the serious roles of his early career. Leading roles in the science fiction classic Forbidden Planet and as the ship's captain in The Poseidon Adventure came long before Nielsen considered a turn to comedy. His deadpan delivery as a doctor in 1980’s Airplane! marked a turning point in Nielsen’s career, one that would make him, in the words of movie critic Roger Ebert, "the Olivier of spoofs."


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Michaëlle Jean

Michaëlle Jean (born September 6, 1957) was the Governor General of Canada. Jean was appointed by Queen Elizabeth II, on the recommendation of Prime Minister Paul Martin, to succeed Adrienne Clarkson and become the 27th governor general of Canada since Confederation in 1867. She is the first person of Afro-Caribbean heritage to serve as Governor General, the third woman, and the second immigrant.

Jean was a refugee from Haiti—coming to Canada in 1968—and was raised in the town of Thetford Mines, Quebec. After receiving a number of university degrees, Jean worked as a journalist and broadcaster for Radio-Canada and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, as well as undertaking charity work, mostly in the field of assisting victims of domestic violence. She occupied the post of Governor General until succeeded by David Johnston in 2010.


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Alanis Morissette

Alanis Morissette (born 1 June 1974) is a Canadian and naturalized American singer-songwriter, record producer, and occasional actress. She is recognized for creating one of the highest selling albums in the history of the music industry, and has won seven Grammy Awards.

Morissette began her career in Canada, and as a child recorded two dance-pop albums, Alanis and Now Is the Time, under MCA Records. Her international debut album was the rock-influenced Jagged Little Pill. Jagged Little Pill sold thirty million copies, making it the best-selling debut album of all time by a female artist. According to the United World Chart, Jagged Little Pill is the second greatest-selling album of all-time by a female artist, behind only Shania Twain's Come on Over.

Morissette took up producing duties for her subsequent albums, including Supposed Former Infatuation Junkie, Under Rug Swept and So-Called Chaos. Morissette has influenced female singers and singer-songwriters in the 2000s such as Kelly Clarkson, Michelle Branch, Pink and Avril Lavigne.


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Angus L. Macdonald

Angus Lewis Macdonald (August 10, 1890 – April 13, 1954) was a Nova Scotia lawyer, law professor and politician. He served as the Liberal premier of Nova Scotia from 1933 to 1940 when he became the federal minister of defence for naval services. He oversaw the creation of an effective Canadian navy and Allied convoy service during World War Two. After the war, he returned to Nova Scotia to become premier again. In the election of 1945, his Liberals swept back into power while their main rivals, the Conservatives, failed to win a single seat. The Liberal rallying cry, "All's Well With Angus L." seemed so convincing that the Conservatives despaired of ever beating Macdonald.He died suddenly in office in 1954.

Macdonald's more than 15 years as premier brought fundamental changes. Under his leadership, the Nova Scotia government spent more than $100 million paving roads, building bridges, extending electrical systems and improving public education. Macdonald dealt with the mass unemployment of the Great Depression by putting the jobless to work on highway projects. He felt direct government relief payments would weaken moral character, undermine self-respect and discourage personal initiative. However, he also faced the reality that the financially strapped Nova Scotia government could not afford to participate fully in federal relief programs that required matching contributions from the provinces.


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Eric Brewer playing for the St. Louis Blues

Eric Brewer (born April 17, 1979) is a Canadian professional ice hockey defenceman who has served as captain for the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League (NHL) since February 2008. He is an NHL All-Star and Olympic gold medalist.

He began his career as a distinguished junior ice hockey player, named to the Western Hockey League (WHL) West Second All-Star Team and the Western Conference roster for the 1998 WHL All-Star Game (although he missed the game due to injury). Drafted in the first round, fifth overall by the New York Islanders in the 1997 NHL Entry Draft, Brewer has spent parts of his nine-year NHL career with the Islanders, the Edmonton Oilers, and the Blues. Brewer has represented Canada at eight International Ice Hockey Federation-sanctioned events, winning three Ice Hockey World Championships gold medals and one World Cup of Hockey gold medal. He won his Olympic gold medal during the 2002 Winter Olympics. For this accomplishment, he was inducted into the BC Sports Hall of Fame with his British Columbian teammates in 2003.


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Harold Innis in the 1920s

Harold Innis (November 5, 1894 – November 8, 1952) was a Canadian professor of political economy at the University of Toronto and the author of seminal works on media, communication theory and Canadian economic history. The affiliated "Innis College" at the University of Toronto is named for him. Despite his dense and difficult prose, many scholars consider Innis one of Canada's most original thinkers. He helped develop the staples thesis, which holds that Canada's culture, political history and economy have been decisively influenced by the exploitation and export of a series of "staples" such as fur, fish, wood, wheat, mined metals and fossil fuels.

Innis's writings on communication explore the role of media in shaping the culture and development of civilizations. He argued, for example, that a balance between oral and written forms of communication contributed to the flourishing of Greek civilization in the 5th century BC. He warned, however, that Western civilization is now imperiled by powerful, advertising-driven media obsessed by "present-mindedness" and the "continuous, systematic, ruthless destruction of elements of permanence essential to cultural activity".

Innis laid the basis for scholarship that looked at the social sciences from a distinctly Canadian point of view. As the head of the University of Toronto's political economy department, he worked to build up a cadre of Canadian scholars so that universities would not continue to rely as heavily on British or American-trained professors unfamiliar with Canada's history and culture. He was successful in establishing sources of financing for Canadian scholarly research.


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Portrait of Brock by John Wycliffe Lowes Forster

Isaac Brock(October 6, 1769 – October 13, 1812) was a British Army officer and administrator. His actions while stationed in the Canadian colonies earned him a knighthood, accolades, and the epithet: The Hero of Upper Canada.

Brock was assigned to Canada in 1802, and became responsible for defending the Canadian borders from the United States during the War of 1812. While many in Canada and Britain believed war could be averted, he began readying the army and militia for what was to come. When war broke out, the populace was prepared; quick victories at Fort Mackinac and Detroit crippled American invasion efforts.

During Brock's time in Canada he faced desertions and near mutinies, but his actions earned him membership in the Order of the Bath, and fought in concert with "celebrated" American Indian leader Tecumseh. He died in the Battle of Queenston Heights.

Brock was born in St Peter Port on the Channel Island of Guernsey, the eighth son of a middle class family. He earned a reputation during his early education on Guernsey as an assiduous student, as well as an exceptional swimmer and boxer. At age ten, he was sent to school in Southampton but spent one year in Rotterdam learning French.


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Jake the Snake

Jacques Plante (January 17, 1929 – February 27, 1986) was a Canadian professional ice hockey goaltender. He grew up in Shawinigan Falls, Quebec, and began to play hockey in 1932. Because he suffered from asthma, his skating ability was restricted; thus, he began playing the goaltender position. Plante started to play organized hockey at age 12, and his first professional game was at age 18. He played for the Montreal Canadiens from 1953 to 1963; during his tenure, the team won the Stanley Cup six times, including five consecutive wins.

Plante first retired in 1965, but was persuaded to return to the NHL to play for the expansion St. Louis Blues in 1968. He was later traded to the Toronto Maple Leafs in 1970, and to the Boston Bruins in 1973. He joined the World Hockey Association, first as coach and general manager for the Quebec Nordiques in 1973–74; he then played goal for the Edmonton Oilers in 1974–75, ending his professional career with that team.

Plante is considered one of the most important innovators in hockey. Most notably, Plante was the first NHL goaltender to wear a goalie mask in regulation play on a regular basis. With the assistance of other experts, he developed and tested many versions of the goalie mask, including the forerunner of today's mask/helmet combination. Plante was the first goaltender to regularly play the puck outside his crease in support of his team's defencemen, and often instructed his teammates from behind the play, as the goaltender usually has the best view of the game.


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Joe Sakic warming up for the Colorado Avalanche

Joe Sakic (born July 7, 1969) is a Canadian professional ice hockey centre, who has played his entire National Hockey League career with the Quebec Nordiques/Colorado Avalanche franchise and is currently an Unrestricted Free Agent. In his 19-year tenure, Sakic has won the Stanley Cup twice, various NHL trophies, and has been voted into 13 NHL All-Star Games. He is regarded as one of the most able team leaders to ever play in the league, and has been able to motivate his team throughout his entire career to play at a winning level.

Over the course of his career, Sakic has been one of the most productive forwards in the game, having twice scored 50 goals and earning at least 100 points in six different seasons. His wrist shot, considered to be one of the best in the NHL, has been the source of much of his production. At the conclusion of the 2006–07 NHL season, he was the 9th all-time points leader in the NHL, as well as 14th in all-time goals and 11th in all-time assists. During the 2002 Winter Olympics, Sakic helped lead Team Canada to its first gold medal in 50 years, and was voted as the tournament's most valuable player. He has represented the team in six other international competitions, including the 1998 and 2006 Winter Olympics. After the 2000–01 NHL season, Sakic was named the MVP of the NHL by the hockey writers and his fellow players.


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k-os in November 2004

k-os (born Kevin Brereton on February 20, 1972) is a Canadian rapper, singer, songwriter and record producer of Trinidadian descent. His given name may also be cited as Kheaven, a spelling he later adopted.

The alias "k-os" is pronounced "chaos" and is an acronym for "Knowledge of Self," although in a later interview he also said that it used to stand for "Kheaven's Original Sound." His music incorporates a wide variety of music genres including but not limited to rap, funk, rock, and reggae. The lyrics frequently focus on promoting a "positive message" while at times expressing criticism of mainstream hip hop culture's obsession with money, fame and glorification of violence.< A musician as well as a producer, k-os has written and produced nearly every part of all three of his albums. k-os usually performs with a live band, something that is uncommon in the hip hop genre. He sometimes plays guitar and keyboard both during live performances and in the studio.

k-os received his first musical exposure with the single "Musical Essence", released in 1993. After the release of his second single "Rise Like The Sun" in 1996 he withdrew from the industry because he was dissatisfied with his musical style. He reappeared briefly in 1999 and released his debut album Exit in 2002. The album received positive reviews but sold relatively few copies. He released his second album Joyful Rebellion in 2004, which received platinum status in Canada. Joyful Rebellion received positive reviews, but at times was criticized for speaking extensively on the state of hip hop. k-os's third album, Atlantis: Hymns for Disco, was released in 2006.


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Slotin's Los Alamos badge mugshot

Louis Slotin (December 1, 1910 – May 30, 1946) was a Canadian physicist and chemist who took part in the Manhattan Project. He was born and raised in the North End of Winnipeg, Manitoba. After earning both his Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees from the University of Manitoba, Slotin attended King's College London, where he obtained his doctorate in physical chemistry in 1936. Afterwards, he joined the University of Chicago as a research associate to help design a cyclotron. In 1942, he was invited to participate in the Manhattan Project.

As part of the Manhattan Project, Slotin performed experiments with uranium and plutonium cores to determine their critical mass values. After World War II, Slotin continued his research at Los Alamos National Laboratory. On May 21, 1946, Slotin accidentally began a fission reaction, which released a burst of hard radiation. He was rushed to hospital, and died nine days later on May 30, the second victim of a criticality accident in history.

Slotin was hailed as a hero by the United States government for reacting quickly enough to prevent the deaths of his colleagues. However, some physicists argue that this was a preventable accident. The accident and its aftermath have been dramatized in fiction.


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Linden3cropped1.JPG

Trevor Linden (born April 11, 1970) is a retired Canadian professional ice hockey player. He played centre and right wing for the Vancouver Canucks of the National Hockey League (NHL). Since joining the league in 1988, he has played with four different teams: the Canucks (in two stints), New York Islanders, Montreal Canadiens, and Washington Capitals. Before joining the NHL, Linden captained the Medicine Hat Tigers of the Western Hockey League (WHL) to consecutive Memorial Cup championships. In addition to appearing in two NHL All-Star games, Linden was a member of the 1998 Canadian Olympic team and participated in the 1996 World Cup of Hockey.

Throughout his career, Linden has been recognized as a respected leader on and off the ice. He was named captain of the Canucks at the age of 21, making him one of the youngest captains in league history. While captaining the Canucks, Linden led the team to within a game of winning the Stanley Cup in 1994. In 1998 he was elected President of the National Hockey League Players' Association (NHLPA), a position he held for eight years. Off the ice, Linden has taken an active role in charities, and was awarded the King Clancy Memorial Trophy for leadership on the ice and humanitarian contributions off the ice in 1997, as well as the NHL Foundation Player Award in 2008. After 19 seasons in the NHL, Linden announced his retirement at a news conference in Vancouver on June 11, 2008 The official announcement came twenty years to the day of initially being drafted by Vancouver.


Portal:Canada/Selected biography/18

Emery playing for the Ottawa Senators

Ray Emery (born September 28, 1982) is a professional ice hockey goaltender, currently playing for Atlant Mytishchi in the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL). He formerly played for the Ottawa Senators of the National Hockey League (NHL). He has been awarded multiple honours, with the majority being at the minor league level.

Emery, who goes by the nicknames Razor and Sugar Ray, was chosen 99th overall by the Senators in the 2001 NHL entry draft. During the 2006–07 season, Emery secured the job of starting goaltender for the Ottawa Senators in their run to the Stanley Cup Finals. On June 20, 2008, the Ottawa Senators waived Emery, and then bought out his contract after a string of off-ice incidents caused the organization to sour on him. On July 9, 2008, it was announced that Emery had signed a one-year, $2M contract with Atlant Mytishchi of the Russian KHL.

Emery is notable for getting into numerous on-ice altercations, a rarity for an ice hockey goaltender. Emery has been involved in one such incident at the NHL level, fighting two Buffalo players, Martin Biron and Andrew Peters in a line brawl during the 2006-07 NHL season. He was also involved in a much publicized fight with then teammate Brian McGrattan during a Senators' practice in January of 2008, as well as an altercation with Jason Spezza during a practice in the 2007 playoffs, and a "verbal sparring match" with Chris Neil on February 3, 2008.


Portal:Canada/Selected biography/19

Stelmach in 2009

Ed Stelmach (born May 11, 1951) is a Canadian politician and served as the 13th Premier of Alberta, Canada, from 2006 to 2011. The grandson of Ukrainian immigrants, Stelmach was born and raised on a farm near Lamont and speaks fluent Ukrainian. He spent his entire pre-political adult life as a farmer, except for some time spent studying at the University of Alberta. His first foray into politics was a 1986 municipal election, when he was elected to the county council of Lamont County. A year into his term, he was appointed reeve. He continued in this position until his entry into provincial politics.

In the 1993 provincial election, Stelmach was elected as the Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Vegreville-Viking (later Fort Saskatchewan-Vegreville). A Progressive Conservative, he served in the cabinets of Ralph Klein—at various times holding the portfolios of Intergovernmental Relations, Transportation, Infrastructure, and Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development—where he developed a reputation as a low-key politician who avoided the limelight. When Klein resigned the party's leadership in 2006, Stelmach was among the first candidates to replace him. After a third place finish on the first ballot of the leadership election, he won an upset second ballot victory over former provincial treasurer Jim Dinning.


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Terry Fox

Terry Fox (July 28, 1958 – June 28, 1981) was a Canadian humanitarian, athlete, and cancer research activist. In 1980, with one leg having been amputated, he embarked on a cross-Canada run to raise money and awareness for cancer research. Fox was the youngest person ever named a Companion of the Order of Canada. He won the 1980 Lou Marsh Award as the nation's top sportsman and was named Canada's Newsmaker of the Year in both 1980 and 1981. Considered a national hero, he has had many buildings, roads and parks named in his honour across the country.

In 1980, he began the Marathon of Hope, a cross-country run to raise money for cancer research. Fox hoped to raise one dollar for each of Canada's 24 million people. He started with little fanfare from St. John's, Newfoundland, in April and ran the equivalent of a full marathon every day. Fox had become a national star by the time he reached Ontario; he made numerous public appearances with businessmen, athletes, and politicians in his efforts to raise money. He was forced to end his run outside of Thunder Bay when the cancer spread to his lungs. His hopes of overcoming the disease and completing his marathon ended when he died nine months later.

Biographies 21–40[edit]

Portal:Canada/Selected biography/21 John Diefenbaker (September 18, 1895 – August 16, 1979) led Canada as its 13th Prime Minister, serving from June 21, 1957, to April 22, 1963. He was the only Progressive Conservative (PC, or Tory) party leader between 1930 and 1979 to lead the party to an election victory, doing so three times, although only once with a majority of the seats in the Canadian House of Commons.

In the House of Commons, he was repeatedly a candidate for the Tory leadership. He was finally successful in 1956, and led the party for eleven years. In 1957, he led the party to its first electoral victory in 27 years and a year later called a snap election and led it to one of its greatest triumphs. Diefenbaker appointed the first female minister to his Cabinet and the first aboriginal member of the Senate. During his six years as Prime Minister, his government obtained the passage of the Canadian Bill of Rights and granted the vote to members of the First Nations and Inuit peoples. In foreign policy, his stance against apartheid helped secure the departure of South Africa from the Commonwealth of Nations, but his indecision on whether to accept Bomarc nuclear missiles from the United States led to his government's downfall. Diefenbaker is also remembered for his role in the cancellation of the Avro Arrow.


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Kathy Dunderdale 31May2011.jpg

Kathy Dunderdale (born February 1952) is a Canadian politician and the tenth and current Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, having served in this capacity since December 3, 2010. Dunderdale was born and raised in Burin, before entering politics she worked as a social worker and ran a consulting company along with her husband. Her first forray into politics was as a member of the Burin town council, where she served as deputy mayor. She was also a Progressive Conservative Party (PC) candidate in the 1993 general election and served as President of the PC Party.

In the 2003 general election, Dunderdale was elected as Member of the House of Assembly (MHA) for Virginia Waters. She served in the cabinets of Danny Williams—at various times holding the portfolios of Innovation, Trade and Rural Development and Natural Resources—where she developed a reputation as one of the most high profile members of Williams' cabinets. Dunderdale became premier upon the resignation of Williams and is the leader of the Progressive Conservative Party. Dunderdale is the first female premier in the province's history and the sixth woman to serve as a premier in the history of Canada.


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launch of "The Ursula Franklin Reader"

Ursula Martius Franklin, CC, O.Ont, FRSC (born September 16, 1921 in Munich, Germany), is a Canadian metallurgist, research physicist, author and educator who has taught at the University of Toronto for more than 40 years. She is the author of The Real World of Technology, which is based on her 1989 Massey Lectures, and The Ursula Franklin Reader: Pacifism as a Map, a collection of her papers, interviews, and talks. Franklin is a practising Quaker and has been active in working on behalf of pacifist and feminist causes. She has written and spoken extensively about the futility of war and the connection between peace and social justice. Franklin has received numerous honours and awards, including the Governor General's Award in Commemoration of the Persons Case for promoting the equality of girls and women in Canada and the Pearson Medal of Peace for her work in advancing human rights. A Toronto high school, Ursula Franklin Academy, has been named in her honour.

Franklin is best known for her writings on the political and social effects of technology. For her, technology is much more than machines, gadgets or electronic transmitters. It is a comprehensive system that includes methods, procedures, organization, "and most of all, a mindset".


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Nominations[edit]

Feel free to add top or high importance biographies to the above list. Other Canada-related biographies may be nominated here.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex_Lifeson