, formerly Fort Carillon
, is a large 18th-century fort
built at a narrows near the south end of Lake Champlain
in upstate New York
in the United States
. It was constructed by the French between 1754 and 1757 during the Seven Years' War
, often referred to as the French and Indian War
in the USA, and was of strategic importance during the 18th-century colonial conflicts between Great Britain and France, and again to a lesser extent during the American Revolutionary War
The site controlled a river portage alongside the mouth of the rapids-infested La Chute River in the 3.5 miles (5.6 km) between Lake Champlain and Lake George and was strategically placed in conflicts over trade routes between the British-controlled Hudson River Valley and the French-controlled Saint Lawrence River Valley. The terrain amplified the importance of the site. Both lakes were long and narrow, oriented north–south, as were the many ridge lines of the Appalachian Mountains extending as far south as Georgia, creating the near-impassable mountainous terrains to the east and west of the Great Appalachian Valley that the site commanded. The name "Ticonderoga" comes from the Iroquois word tekontaró:ken, meaning "it is at the junction of two waterways".
During the 1758 Battle of Carillon, 4,000 French defenders were able to repel an attack by 16,000 British troops near the fort. In 1759, the British returned and drove a token French garrison from the fort merely by occupying high ground that threatened the fort. During the American Revolutionary War, the fort again saw action in May 1775 when the Green Mountain Boys and other state militia under the command of Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured it in a surprise attack. The Americans held it until June 1777, when British forces under General John Burgoyne again occupied high ground above the fort and threatened the Continental Army troops, leading them to withdraw from the fort and its surrounding defenses.
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(May 17, 1776 – May 10, 1842) was a scientist and educator in the Troy, New York
area. Eaton graduated from Williams College
in 1799 then studied law in New York City
. After admission to the bar in 1802, he was jailed for charges of forgery in 1810. After five years in prison, he was released having been educated in botany and geology. He spent a year at Yale College
studying botany, chemistry, and mineralogy. He then returned to Williams College, where he lectured on zoology, botany, and geology. In 1817 he published Manual of Botany for the Northern States
, the first comprehensive flora
of the area; it ultimately went through eight editions.
He returned to New York State in 1817 where DeWitt Clinton arranged for him to deliver a series of lectures to the New York State Legislature on the state's geology in connection with the building of the Erie Canal. Among the legislators who heard these lectures was Stephen Van Rensselaer III, who, in 1820, hired him to produce A geological Survey of the County of Albany, which was followed by geological surveys of much of the area through which the canal was built.
In 1824, with Rensselaer's assistance, he co-founded The Rensselaer School (now known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) "for the purpose of instructing persons, who may choose to apply themselves, in the application of science to the common purposes of life". Eaton served as Senior Professor at The Rensselaer School until the time of his death in 1842. Under his leadership, Troy rivaled London as a center for geological studies in the first part of the 19th century.