was a name coined by "Emperor of Mexico" Maximilian I
in an effort to gain legitimacy, since his patron, Napoleon III
, spoke French
, a Latinate tongue like Spanish and Portuguese. Maximilian did not last, but the coinage of "Latin America" is one of the most successful of all time. Latin America is traditionally defined as the regions
, the language of Spain
, and Portuguese
, the language of Portugal
, were spoken -- in other words, every part of the Western hemisphere
, with the exception of Suriname and a few small islands that speak Dutch
, that was not Anglo America
. (English is a Germanic language
.) Therefore, virtually all of the Western Hemisphere
except the United States
, Canada, and the non-Hispanophone
countries of the Caribbean
and South America
have tended to come under the heading of Latin America. Other areas where languages derived from Latin
, such as Papiamento
, predominate are sometimes included and sometimes excluded from Latin America, depending on the speaker.
Rongorongo is a system of glyphs discovered in the 19th century on Easter Island that appears to be writing or proto-writing. It cannot be read despite numerous attempts at decipherment. Although some calendrical and what might prove to be genealogical information has been identified, not even these glyphs can actually be read. If rongorongo does prove to be writing, it could be one of as few as three or four independent inventions of writing in human history. Two dozen wooden objects bearing rongorongo inscriptions, some heavily weathered, burned, or otherwise damaged, were collected in the late 19th century and are now scattered in museums and private collections. None remain on Easter Island. The objects are mostly tablets shaped from irregular pieces of wood, sometimes driftwood, but include a chieftain's staff, a bird-man statuette, and two reimiro ornaments. There are also a few petroglyphs which may include short rongorongo inscriptions. Oral history suggests that only a small elite was ever literate and that the tablets were sacred. Authentic rongorongo texts are written in alternating directions, a system called reverse boustrophedon. In a third of the tablets, the lines of text are inscribed in shallow fluting carved into the wood. The glyphs themselves are outlines of human, animal, plant, artifact and geometric forms. Many of the human and animal figures, such as 200 and 280 , have characteristic protuberances on each side of the head, possibly representing ears or eyes. Individual texts are conventionally known by a single uppercase letter and a name, such as Tablet C, the Mamari Tablet. The somewhat variable names may be descriptive or indicate where the object is kept, as in the Oar, the Snuffbox, the Small Santiago Tablet, and the Santiago Staff.
Subportals for geopolitical entities
Alpamayo, one of the most conspicuous peaks in the Cordillera Blanca mountain range of the Peruvian Andes. It is a steep, almost perfect pyramid of ice, one of a number of peaks that compose the northernmost massif of the Cordillera Blanca..