ECHELON, originally a code-name, is now used in global media and in popular culture to describe a signals intelligence (SIGINT) collection and analysis network operated on behalf of the five signatory states to the UKUSA Security Agreement (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States, referred to by a number of abbreviations, including AUSCANNZUKUS and Five Eyes). It has also been described as the only software system which controls the download and dissemination of the intercept of commercial satellite trunk communications. It was created in the early 1960s to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies during the Cold War, and was formally established in the year of 1971.
By the end of the 20th century, the system referred to as "ECHELON" had evolved beyond its military/diplomatic origins, to also become "... a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications."
The system has been reported in a number of public sources. One of the earliest reports to describe the program, code-named "ECHELON", was Duncan Campbell's 1988 article, "Somebody's listening", published in the New Statesman. The program's capabilities and political implications were investigated by a committee of the European Parliament during 2000 and 2001 with a report published in 2001, and by author James Bamford in his books on the National Security Agency of the United States. The European Parliament stated in its report that the term ECHELON is used in a number of contexts, but that the evidence presented indicates that it was the name for a signals intelligence collection system. The report concludes that, on the basis of information presented, ECHELON was capable of interception and content inspection of telephone calls, fax, e-mail and other data traffic globally through the interception of communication bearers including satellite transmission, public switched telephone networks (which once carried most Internet traffic) and microwave links.
Bamford describes the system as the software controlling the collection and distribution of civilian telecommunications traffic conveyed using communication satellites, with the collection being undertaken by ground stations located in the footprint of the downlink leg.
- ^ Tim Phillips, "Activists Confess to Breaking Into Federal Bureau of Investigation Office More Than Forty Years Ago", Activist Defense, January 7, 2014.
- ^ Noam Chomsky. New Political Science, Volume 21, Number 3 (September, 1999), pp. 303-324
- ^ Patrick McGuire (2013-03-01). "We Spoke To Barrett Brown From Prison". VICE. Retrieved 2013-11-11.
- ^ David Carr (2013-09-09). "A Journalist-Agitator Facing Prison Over a Link". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
- ^ Peter Ludlow (2013-06-18). "The Strange Case of Barrett Brown". The Nation. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
- ^ Kristin Bergman (2013-08-06). "Adding up to 105: The Charges Against Barrett Brown". Digital Media Law Project. Retrieved 2013-12-13.
- ^ By Fruzsina Eördögh. "The US Government Just Upheld Barrett Brown's Gag Order". Motherboard.vice.com. Retrieved 2013-09-06.
- ^ a b Given the 5 dialects that use the terms, UKUSA can be pronounced from "You-Q-SA" to "Oo-Coo-SA", AUSCANNZUKUS can be pronounced from "Oz-Can-Zuke-Us" to "Orse-Can-Zoo-Cuss".
- From Talk:UKUSA Agreement: Per documents officially released by both the Government Communications Headquarters and the National Security Agency, this agreement is referred to as the UKUSA Agreement. This name is subsequently used by media sources reporting on the story, as written in new references used for the article. The NSA press release provides a pronunciation guide, indicating that "UKUSA" should not be read as two separate entities. (The National Archives) (National Security Agency)
- ^ "UK 'biggest spy' among the Five Eyes". News Corp Australia. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- ^ Google books – Echelon by John O'Neill
- ^ "AUSCANNZUKUS Information Portal". auscannzukus.net. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
- ^ a b Bamford, James; Body of Secrets, Anchor, ISBN 0-385-49908-6; 2002
- ^ "Q&A: What you need to know about Echelon". BBC. 29 May 2001.
- ^ Nabbali, Talitha; Perry, Mark (March 2004). "Going for the throat". Computer Law & Security Review. 20 (2): 84–97. doi:10.1016/S0267-3649(04)00018-4.
It wasn't until 1971 that the UKUSA allies began ECHELON
- ^ a b c Schmid, Gerhard (11 July 2001). "On the existence of a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications (ECHELON interception system), (2001/2098(INI))" (pdf – 194 pages). European Parliament: Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- ^ Campbell, Duncan (12 August 1988). "Somebody's Listening". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 2007-01-03. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
Orwell pictured by the National Union of Journalists in 1933
The bibliography of George Orwell includes journalism, essays, books, and fiction written by the British writer Eric Arthur Blair (pictured), pen name George Orwell. Orwell first achieved widespread acclaim with his fictional novella Animal Farm and cemented his place in history as a novelist with the publication of Nineteen Eighty-Four shortly before his death. While fiction accounts for a small fraction of his total output, these two novels are his best-selling works, having sold almost fifty million copies in sixty-two languages by 2007—more than any other pair of books by a twentieth-century author. In addition, Orwell wrote book-length investigations of poverty in Britain in the form of Down and Out in Paris and London and The Road to Wigan Pier and one of the first retrospectives on the Spanish Civil War in Homage to Catalonia. The impact of Orwell's large corpus is manifested in additions to the Western canon and the adoption of "Orwellian" as a description of totalitarian societies. (Full list...)