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Table échiquier - 134.jpg


A selection of white and black chess pieces on a checkered surface.
Part of a Staunton chess set
Left to right: white king, black rook, black queen, white pawn, black knight, white bishop

Chess is a board game played between two players. The current form of the game emerged in Southern Europe during the second half of the 15th century after evolving from similar, much older games of Indian and Persian origin. Today, chess is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide. There are related games such as xiangqi.

Chess is an abstract strategy game and involves no hidden information. It is played on a square chessboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. At the start, each player (one controlling the white pieces, the other controlling the black pieces) controls sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent's king, whereby the king is under immediate attack (in "check") and there is no way for it to escape. There are also several ways a game can end in a draw.

Organized chess arose in the 19th century. Chess competition today is governed internationally by FIDE (International Chess Federation). The first universally recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886; Magnus Carlsen is the current World Champion. A huge body of chess theory has developed since the game's inception. Aspects of art are found in chess composition; and chess in its turn influenced Western culture and art and has connections with other fields such as mathematics, computer science, and psychology. (Full article...)

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Spassky at the Thessaloniki Olympiad, 1984

Boris Vasilievich Spassky (Russian: Бори́с Васи́льевич Спа́сский; born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess player, who was the tenth World Chess Champion, holding the title from 1969 to 1972. Spassky played three world championship matches: he lost to Tigran Petrosian in 1966; defeated Petrosian in 1969 to become world champion; then lost to Bobby Fischer in a famous match in 1972.

Spassky won the Soviet Chess Championship twice outright (1961, 1973), and twice lost in playoffs (1956, 1963), after tying for first place during the event proper. He was a World Chess Championship candidate on seven occasions (1956, 1965, 1968, 1974, 1977, 1980 and 1985). In addition to his candidates wins in 1965 and 1968, Spassky reached the semi-final stage in 1974 and the final stage in 1977. (Full article...)
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FIDE world ranking

Rank Rank change* Player Rating Rating change*
1 Steady Norway Magnus Carlsen 2855 Steady
2 Increase 1 China Ding Liren 2799 Steady
3 Decrease 1 United States Fabiano Caruana 2791 Decrease 9
4 Increase 1 Armenia Levon Aronian 2782 Steady
5 Decrease 1 Russia Ian Nepomniachtchi 2782 Steady
6 Increase 1 Netherlands Anish Giri 2774 Steady
7 Increase 1 Russia Alexander Grischuk 2773 Steady
8 Decrease 2 United States Wesley So 2772 Decrease 6
9 Increase 1 France Alireza Firouzja 2770 Steady
10 Increase 2 France Maxime Vachier-Lagrave 2766 Increase 3
11 Steady Azerbaijan Shakhriyar Mamedyarov 2765 Steady
12 Decrease 3 Hungary Richárd Rapport 2763 Decrease 7
13 Steady Azerbaijan Teimour Radjabov 2763 Steady
14 Increase 1 Poland Jan-Krzysztof Duda 2756 Steady
15 Decrease 1 United States Leinier Domínguez 2752 Decrease 8
16 Steady India Viswanathan Anand 2751 Decrease 2
17 Steady China Wang Hao 2744 Steady
18 Steady Russia Sergey Karjakin 2743 Steady
19 Steady United States Hikaru Nakamura 2736 Steady
20 Increase 3 Russia Nikita Vitiugov 2734 Increase 7
*Change from the previous month

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Chess from A to Z

Index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z (0–9)
Glossary: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



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