Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species. The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia and Sudan) and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, and Réunion in the Indian Ocean. Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Africa. The two most commonly grown are C. arabica and C. robusta. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds (referred to as "beans") are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and then brewed with near-boiling water to produce the beverage known as coffee.
Coffee is darkly colored, bitter, slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans, primarily due to its caffeine content. It is one of the most popular drinks in the world, and it can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, caffè latte). It is usually served hot, although iced coffee is a popular alternative. Clinical studies indicate that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption lowers the risk of some diseases, although those long-term studies are of generally poor quality.
While coffee is native to Ethiopia and Sudan, the earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking as the modern beverage appears in modern-day Yemen in southern Arabia in the middle of the 15th century in Sufi shrines. It was in what is now Yemen that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a manner similar to how it is now prepared for drinking. But the coffee seeds had to be first exported from East Africa to Yemen, as Coffea arabica is thought to have been indigenous to the former. The Yemenis obtained their coffee via Somali traders from Berbera (who in turn procured the beans from the Ethiopian Highlands) and began to cultivate the seed. By the 16th century, the drink had reached Persia, Turkey, and North Africa. From there, it spread to Europe and the rest of the world.
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Coffee cupping setup in Uganda.
Coffee cupping, or coffee tasting, is the practice of observing the tastes and aromas of brewed coffee. It is a professional practice but can be done informally by anyone or by professionals known as "Q Graders". A standard coffee cupping procedure involves deeply sniffing the coffee, then loudly slurping the coffee so it spreads to the back of the tongue. The coffee taster attempts to measure aspects of the coffee's taste, specifically the body (the texture or mouthfeel, such as oiliness), sweetness, acidity (a sharp and tangy feeling, like when biting into an orange), flavour (the characters in the cup), and aftertaste. Since coffee beans embody telltale flavours from the region where they were grown, cuppers may attempt to identify the coffee's origin. Read more...
The following are images from various coffee-related articles on Wikipedia.
Various grinders for coffee and spices
A 1652 handbill advertising coffee for sale in St. Michael's Alley, London.
Single serve Vietnamese drip filter
Family in Söderhamn, Sweden seated for fika around 1916.
Coffee break in Belgrade, Serbia.
Coffeepot (cafetière "campanienne"), part of a service, 1836, hard-paste porcelain, overall: 19.2 x 17.6 x 10.8 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art
18th century French plan of Mocha, Yemen. The Somali, Jewish and European quarters are located outside the citadel.
A variation on the moka pot with the upper section formed as a coffee fountain
Dutch engraving of Mocha in 1692
Working on a laptop at a café/coffee house
Café Zimmermann, Leipzig (engraving by Johann Georg Schreiber, 1732)
Cafés in central Tirana in 2017
In a pour-over, the water passes through the coffee grounds, gaining soluble compounds to form coffee. Insoluble compounds remain within the coffee filter.
Dutch coffee-roasting machine, c. 1920
Filter coffee being brewed
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A Life magazine advertisement for the Pan-American Coffee Bureau featuring George Burns and Gracie Allen, 1953.
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