is the process of algorithmically
constructing a large digital image
from a small digital sample image by taking advantage of its structural content. Texture synthesis is an object of research in computer graphics
and is used in many fields, amongst others digital image editing
, 3D computer graphics
. Find out more...
Rendering is the process of generating an image from a model, by means of computer programs. The model is a description of three dimensional objects in a strictly defined language or data structure. It would contain geometry, viewpoint, texture, lighting, and shading information. The image is a digital image or raster graphics image. The term may be by analogy with an "artist's rendering" of a scene. 'Rendering' is also used to describe the process of calculating effects in a video editing file to produce final video output.
It is one of the major sub-topics of 3D computer graphics, and in practice always connected to the others. In the graphics pipeline, it is the last major step, giving the final appearance to the models and animation. With the increasing sophistication of computer graphics since the 1970s onward, it has become a more distinct subject.
Rendering has uses in architecture, video games, simulators, movie or TV special effects, and design visualization, each employing a different balance of features and techniques. As a product, a wide variety of renderers are available. Some are integrated into larger modeling and animation packages, some are stand-alone, some are free open-source projects. On the inside, a renderer is a carefully engineered program, based on a selective mixture of disciplines related to: light physics, visual perception, mathematics, and software development.
In the case of 3D graphics, rendering may be done slowly, as in pre-rendering
, or in real time. Pre-rendering is a computationally intensive process that is typically used for movie creation, while real-time rendering is often done for 3D video games which rely on the use of graphics cards with 3D hardware accelerators. Find out more...
Global illumination is a general name for a group of algorithms used in 3D computer graphics that are meant to add more realistic lighting to 3D scenes. Such algorithms take into account not only the light which comes directly from a light source (direct illumination), but also subsequent cases in which light rays from the same source are reflected by other surfaces in the scene (indirect illumination).
Theoretically reflections, refractions, and shadows are all examples of global illumination, because when simulating them, one object affects the rendering of another object (as opposed to an object being affected only by a direct light). In practice, however, only the simulation of diffuse inter-reflection or caustics is called global illumination.
, ray tracing
, beam tracing
, cone tracing
, path tracing
, metropolis light transport
, ambient occlusion
, photon mapping
, and image based lighting
are examples of algorithms used in global illumination, some of which may be used together to yield results that are fast, but accurate. Find out more...
Radiosity is a global illumination algorithm used in 3D computer graphics rendering. Radiosity is an application of the finite element method to solving the rendering equation for scenes with purely diffuse surfaces. Unlike Monte Carlo algorithms (such as path tracing) which handle all types of light paths, typical radiosity methods only account for paths of the form LD*E, i.e., paths which leave a light source and are reflected diffusely some number of times (possibly zero) before hitting the eye.
Radiosity methods were first developed in about 1950 in the engineering field of heat transfer
. They were later refined specifically for application to the problem of rendering computer graphics in 1984 by researchers at Cornell University
. Find out more...
In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling is the process of developing a mathematical, wireframe representation of any three-dimensional object (either inanimate or living) via specialized software. The product is called a 3D model. It can be displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in a computer simulation of physical phenomena. The model can also be physically created using 3D Printing devices.
Models may be created automatically or manually. The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts
such as sculpting
. Find out more...
Machinima has potential to become the development of computer graphics. Machinima is made up of three types of skills: filmmaking, animation and 3D game development. During the film making of the Machinima, the 3D game developers interact with the virtual environment of a game to create a performance for the directors to record the actions of a game until they have enough footage for a narrative to create a film/video.
Animation can also be added to the footage of the Machinima to create different styles of characters, animation or Background. Machinima's purpose is to show passive entertainment of game engines, in result of this it widens the gaming audience. When machinima.com was released 5 January 2000, it made this art form rise in popularity and an audience became more aware of the capabilities that this type of computer graphics could do.  Many types of computer graphics cost thousands of pounds to create and a lot of hard training and time to create, while Machinima as a form of computer graphics, can be created in any environment with low cost and is time consuming.
Plus game engines
provide all the sound effects
together, while shooting in live action
; this enables the machinima film maker
to focus more on the narrative then how to make the video/film. Machinima can be used to create many different types of videos and films for many different reasons, for example adverts to promote games, tutorials of games to help gamers, music videos and stories for entertainment etc. Find out more...