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Portal:Constructed languages

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Introduction

The Conlang Flag, a symbol of language construction created by subscribers to the CONLANG mailing list which represents the Tower of Babel against a rising sun.

A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary are, instead of having developed naturally, consciously devised for communication between intelligent beings, most commonly for use by humanoids. Constructed languages may also be referred to as artificial, planned or invented languages and in some cases fictional languages. There are many possible reasons to create a constructed language, such as to ease human communication (see international auxiliary language and code), to give fiction or an associated constructed setting an added layer of realism, for experimentation in the fields of linguistics, cognitive science, and machine learning, for artistic creation, and for language games.

The expression planned language is sometimes used to indicate international auxiliary languages and other languages designed for actual use in human communication. Some prefer it to the adjective artificial, as this term may be perceived as pejorative. Outside Esperanto culture, the term language planning means the prescriptions given to a natural language to standardize it; in this regard, even a "natural language" may be artificial in some respects, meaning some of its words have been crafted by conscious decision. Prescriptive grammars, which date to ancient times for classical languages such as Latin and Sanskrit, are rule-based codifications of natural languages, such codifications being a middle ground between naïve natural selection and development of language and its explicit construction. The term glossopoeia is also used to mean language construction, particularly construction of artistic languages.

Conlang speakers are rare. For example, the Hungarian census of 2001 found 4570 speakers of Esperanto, 10 of Romanid, two each of Interlingua and Ido and one each of Idiom Neutral and Mundolinco. The Russian census of 2010 found 992 speakers of Esperanto, nine of Ido, one of Edo and no speakers of Slovio or Interlingua.

Selected language

To realise English Socialism (Ingsoc) in Oceania, the Party created the controlled language of Newspeak to ensure universal orthodoxy of ideology and politics among the populace.

Newspeak is the language of Oceania, a fictional totalitarian state ruled by the Party, who created the language to meet the ideological requirements of English Socialism (Ingsoc). In the world of Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), Newspeak is a controlled language, of restricted grammar and limited vocabulary, a linguistic design meant to limit the freedom of thought—personal identity, self-expression, free will—that ideologically threatens the régime of Big Brother and the Party, who thus criminalized such concepts as thoughtcrime, contradictions of Ingsoc orthodoxy.

In "The Principles of Newspeak", the appendix to the novel, George Orwell explains that Newspeak usage follows most of the English grammar, yet is a language characterised by a continually diminishing vocabulary; complete thoughts reduced to simple terms of simplistic meaning. Linguistically, the contractions of Newspeak—Ingsoc (English Socialism), Minitrue (Ministry of Truth), etc.—derive from the syllabic abbreviations of Russian, which identify the government and social institutions of the Soviet Union, such as politburo (Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union), Comintern (Communist International), kolkhoz (collective farm), and Komsomol (Young Communists' League). The long-term political purpose of the new language is for every member of the Party and society, except the Proles—the working-class of Oceania—to exclusively communicate in Newspeak, by the year A.D. 2050; during that 66-year transition, the usage of Oldspeak (Standard English) shall remain interspersed among Newspeak conversations.

Newspeak is also a constructed language, of planned phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, like Basic English, which Orwell promoted (1942–44) during the Second World War (1939–45), and later rejected in the essay "Politics and the English Language" (1946), wherein he criticises the bad usage of English in his day. Find out more...

Did you know...

...that the Marquis Louis de Beaufront, one of the creators of Ido, was not really a marquis?
...that two different constructed languages have claimed the name Interlingua, and one the name Interlingue?
...that Gottfried Leibniz was not only a famous scientist, but also the creator of a language named Characteristica universalis?

Current events

Corresponding categories

Projects

Conlangflag.svg You are invited to participate in WikiProject Constructed languages, a WikiProject dedicated to developing and improving articles about constructed languages.

Things you can do


Here are some Constructed language tasks: Several articles about constructed languages have been deleted for lack of verifiability, independent resources or notability. If you think one of the following subjects meets Wikipedia's criteria for inclusion, don't hesitate dig it up from the graveyard, but don't forget to add proper references:

Web resources

Articles

Constructed language types
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A priori language, Artificial script, Artistic language, Constructed language, Controlled language, Engineered language, Experimental language, International auxiliary language, Language game, Logical language, Musical language, Oligosynthetic language, Philosophical language, Pivot language, Relexification, Universal language, Whistled language, Zonal constructed language

General language types

Agglutinative language, Analytic language, Inflectional language, Fusional language, Isolating language, Polysynthetic language, Synthetic language

See also: List of constructed languages, List of constructed scripts


International auxiliary languages
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Languages: Adjuvilo, Afrihili, aUI, Babm, Basic English, Bolak (Blue Language), Communicationssprache, Dutton Speedwords, Esperanto, Esperanto II, Eurolengo, Europanto, Folkspraak, Français fondamental, Globish, Glosa, Idiom Neutral, Ido, Interglossa, Interlingua, Interslavic, Intal, Kotava, Langue nouvelle, Latino sine flexione, Lingua Franca Nova, Lingua sistemfrater, Lingwa de planeta, Lojban, Mondial, Mundolinco, Nal Bino, Neo, Novial, Occidental, Pasilingua, Poliespo, Romániço, Romanid, Sambahsa, Slovianski, Slovio, Simplified Technical English, Solresol, Sona, Spokil, Special English, Toki Pona, Tutonish, Universal, Universalglot, Uropi, Unish, Volapük

Creators: Arturo Alfandari, Louis de Beaufront, C. George Boeree, Léon Bollack, Claudius Colas, Louis Couturat, René Descartes, Reginald J. G. Dutton, Alexander Gode, Ján Herkeľ, Lancelot Hogben, Otto Jespersen, Arie de Jong, Juraj Križanić, Léopold Leau, Matija Majar, Diego Marani, Elias Molee, Charles Kay Ogden, Giuseppe Peano, Jean Pirro, Waldemar Rosenberger, Joseph Schipfer, Johann Martin Schleyer, Kenneth Searight, Jan van Steenbergen, Paul Steiner, Petro Stojan, François Sudre, Edgar de Wahl, Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof

See also: Arcaicam Esperantom, Esperantido, Esperanto and Ido compared, Esperanto and Interlingua compared, Pan-Germanic language, Pan-Slavic language, Proto-Esperanto, Reformed Esperanto


Logical, philosophical, and engineered languages
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Languages: An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language, aUI, Blissymbol, Characteristica universalis, CycL, Gibson Code, Ilaksh, Ithkuil, Kalaba-X, Láadan, Lincos, Loglan, Logopandecteision, Lojban, Loom, Ro

Creators: James Cooke Brown, George Dalgarno, Hans Freudenthal, Gottfried Leibniz, Francis Lodwick, Kenneth Lee Pike, John Wilkins


Artistic and fictional languages
Quenya, written in Tengwar

Languages: Atlantean, Adûnaic, Aklo, Al Bhed, Alltongue, Asa'pili, Ascian, Atlantean language, Aulëan, Babel-17, Balaibalan, Baronh, Barsoomian, Black Speech, Brithenig, Chakobsa, Chorukor, Cirquish, Darkovan, D'ni, Doriathrin, Dothraki, Drac, Dritok, Enchanta, Enochian, Galach, Gargish, Gnommish, Goa'uld, Huttese, Interlac, Iotic, Kēlen, Khuzdul, Klingon, Klingonaase, Koalang, Ku, Kobaïan, The Languages of Pao, Lapine, The Lexicon of Comicana, Linguacode, Loxian, Láadan, Mandalorian, Mangani, Marain, Mänti, Mezangelle, Moss, Nadsat, Na'vi, Newspeak, Old Tongue, Pravic, Ptydepe, Quenya, Rihannsu, Shyriiwook, Simlish, Sindarin, Speedtalk, Spocanian, Starckdeutsch, Stark, Starsza Mowa, Talossan, Telerin, Teonaht, The Speech, Tho Fan, Transpiranto, Tsolyáni, Utopian, Vendergood, Verdurian, Valyrian, Wenedyk, Zaum

Scripts: Aurebesh, Cirth, Tengwar

Creators: Richard Adams, Anthony Burgess, Sally Caves, Samuel R. Delany, Diane Duane, Suzette Haden Elgin, Paul Frommer, Václav Havel, Frank Herbert, Hergé, Ursula K. Le Guin, Barry B. Longyear, Morioka Hiroyuki, Marc Okrand, George Orwell, David J. Peterson, Mark Rosenfelder, David Salo, Jan van Steenbergen, Daniel Tammet, J. R. R. Tolkien, Christian Vander, Xul Solar, Marion Zimmer Bradley

See also: Alien language, Codex Seraphinianus, Elvish languages, False writing system, Languages in Star Wars, Languages constructed by J. R. R. Tolkien (Elvish languages (Middle-earth)), North Slavic languages


Constructed languages for special uses

Languages: Boontling, Brajabuli, Damin, Eskayan, Gestuno, High Icelandic, Iazychie, Kesen dialect, Lingua Ignota, Medefaidrin, Nuwaubic, Polari, Tadoma, Timerio, Yerkish

See also: Voynich manuscript


Constructed writing systems for natural languages
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Writing systems: Cherokee syllabary, Cree syllabics, Deseret alphabet, Hangul, Landsmål, Nynorsk, Shavian alphabet

Creators: Ivar Aasen, James Evans, William Fulco, Ronald Kingsley Read, Heinrich Schmid, Sequoyah


Organizations and regulating bodies

Akademio de Esperanto, Centre de documentation et d'étude sur la langue internationale, Esperanto Museum and Collection of Planned Languages, International Auxiliary Language Association, International Volapük Academy, Klingon Language Institute, Logical Language Group, Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido


Miscellaneous

A Secret Vice, Bible translations into fictional languages, Conlanger, Conlanging - The Art of Crafting Tongues, Cosmoglottics, Esperantology, Ill Bethisad, Interlinguistics, ISO, SIL, and BCP language codes for constructed languages, Langmaker, Language planning, Language reform, Lingua generalis, Zompist.com

Wikipedia in constructed languages

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