Wikipedia's contents: Culture and the arts
Culture and the arts
The word culture
is derived from the Latin
meaning to "inhabit, cultivate, or honour". In general, culture refers to human activity; different definitions of culture reflect different theories for understanding
, or criteria for valuing
human activity. Present day Anthropologists
use the term to refer to the universal human capacity to classify experiences and to encode and communicate them symbolically. They regard this capacity as a defining feature of the genus Homo. Since culture is learned, people living in different places have different cultures. There can be different cultures in different countries, and there can also be shared cultures among continents.
The arts are a vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. It is a broader term than "art," which as a description of a field usually means only the visual arts. The arts encompasses visual arts, literary arts and the performing arts – music, theatre, dance, spoken word and film, among others.
Art, in its broadest meaning, is the expression of creativity or imagination. The word art comes from the Latin word ars, which, loosely translated, means "arrangement". Art is commonly understood as the act of making works (or artworks) which use the human creative impulse and which have meaning beyond simple description. Art is often distinguished from crafts and recreational hobby activities. The term creative arts denotes a collection of disciplines whose principal purpose is the output of material for the viewer or audience to interpret. As such, art may be taken to include forms as diverse as prose writing, poetry, dance, acting or drama, film, music, sculpture, photography, illustration, architecture, collage, painting, craft and fashion. Art may also be understood as relating to creativity, æsthetics and the generation of emotion.
Culture – set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that define a group of people, such as the people of a particular region. Culture includes the elements that characterize a particular peoples' way of life.
- The arts – vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. The arts encompasses visual arts, literary arts and the performing arts.
- Literature – the art of written works.
- Fiction – any form of narrative which deals, in part or in whole, with events that are not factual, but rather, imaginary and invented by its author(s).
- Poetry – literary art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its apparent meaning.
- Critical theory – examination and critique of society and culture, drawing from knowledge across the social sciences and humanities.
- Visual arts – art forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature.
- Architecture – The art and science of designing and erecting buildings and other physical structures.
- Crafts – recreational activities and hobbies that involve making things with one's hands and skill.
- Drawing – visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium.
- Design – the process for planning the overall look of an object.
- Film – motion pictures.
- Painting – practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface with a brush or other object.
- Photography – art, science, and practice of creating pictures by recording radiation on a radiation-sensitive medium, such as a photographic film, or electronic image sensors.
- Sculpture – three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials - typically stone such as marble - or metal, glass, or wood.
- Performing arts – those forms of art that use the artist's own body, face, and presence as a medium.
- Dance – art form of movement of the body.
- Film – moving pictures, the art form that records performances visually.
- Theatre – collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place.
- Music – art form the medium of which is sound and silence.
- Music genres
- Jazz – musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States, mixing African and European music traditions.
- Opera – art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (called a libretto) and musical score.
- Musical instruments – devices created or adapted for the purpose of making musical sounds.
- Guitars – the guitar is a plucked string instrument, usually played with fingers or a pick. The guitar consists of a body with a rigid neck to which the strings, generally six in number, are attached. Guitars are traditionally constructed of various woods and strung with animal gut or, more recently, with either nylon or steel strings.
- Stagecraft – technical aspects of theatrical, film, and video production. It includes, but is not limited to, constructing and rigging scenery, hanging and focusing of lighting, design and procurement of costumes, makeup, procurement of props, stage management, and recording and mixing of sound.
- Gastronomy – the art and science of good eating, including the study of food and culture.
- Food preparation – act of preparing foodstuffs for eating. It encompasses a vast range of methods, tools, and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavour and digestibility of food. Includes but is not limited to cooking.
- Cuisines – styles of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, each usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region.
- Meals – eating occasions that take place at a certain time and includes specific prepared food.
- Food and drink
- Chocolate – raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree.
- Wine – alcoholic beverage made from fermented fruit juice (typically from grapes).
- Recreation and Entertainment – any activity which provides a diversion or permits people to amuse themselves in their leisure time. Entertainment is generally passive, such as watching opera or a movie.
- Festivals – entertainment events centering on and celebrating a unique aspect of a community, usually staged by that community.
- Fiction – any form of narrative which deals, in part or in whole, with events that are not factual, but rather, imaginary and invented by its author(s).
- Spy fiction – genre of fiction concerning forms of espionage
- James Bond – fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming. Since then, the character has grown to icon status, featured in many novels, movies, video games and other media.
- Fantasy – genre of fiction using magic and the supernatural as primary elements of plot, theme or setting, often in imaginary worlds, generally avoiding the technical/scientific content typical of Science fiction, but overlapping with it
- A Song of Ice and Fire franchise (Game of Thrones) – fantasy series and setting by writer George R. R. Martin, home to dragons, White Walkers, and feuding noble houses.
- Middle-earth – fantasy setting by writer J.R.R. Tolkien, home to hobbits, orcs, and many other mystical races and creatures.
- Narnia – fantasy setting by C.S. Lewis, home to talking animals, centaurs, witches, and many other mythical creatures and characters.
- Science fiction – a genre of fiction dealing with imaginary but more or less plausible (or at least nonsupernatural) content such as future settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, aliens, giant monsters (Kaiju), and paranormal abilities. Exploring the consequences of scientific innovations is one purpose of science fiction, making it a "literature of ideas".
- Star Trek – sci-fi setting created by Gene Roddenberry, focused mostly upon the adventures of the personnel of Star Fleet of the United Federation of Planets and their exploration and interaction with the regions of space within and beyond their borders.
- Games – structured playing, usually undertaken for enjoyment, involving goals, rules, challenge, and interaction.
- Board games – tabletop games that involve counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules.
- Chess – two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: One king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns.
- Card games – game using playing cards as the primary device with which the game is played, be they traditional or game-specific.
- Poker – family of card games that share betting rules and usually (but not always) hand rankings.
- Video games – electronic games that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device.
- Sports – organized, competitive, entertaining, and skillful activity requiring commitment, strategy, and fair play, in which a winner can be defined by objective means. Generally speaking, a sport is a game based in physical athleticism.
- Ball games
- Baseball – bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each where the aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond.
- Basketball – team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules.
- Golf – club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
- Tennis – sport usually played between two players (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles), using specialized racquets to strike a felt-covered hollow rubber ball over a net into the opponent's court.
- Combat sports
- Fencing – family of combat sports using bladed weapons.
- Martial arts – extensive systems of codified practices and traditions of combat, practiced for a variety of reasons, including self-defense, competition, physical health and fitness, as well as mental and spiritual development.
- Traveling / racing sports
- Canoeing and kayaking – two closely related forms of watercraft paddling, involving manually propelling and navigating specialized boats called canoes and kayaks using a blade that is joined to a shaft, known as a paddle, in the water.
- Sailing – using sailboats for sporting purposes. It can be recreational or competitive. Competitive sailing is in the form of races.
- Cycling – use of bicycles or other non-motorized cycles for transport, recreation, or for sport. Also called bicycling or biking.
- Motorcycling – riding a motorcycle. A variety of subcultures and lifestyles have been built up around motorcycling and motorcycle racing.
- Running – moving rapidly on foot, during which both feet are off the ground at regular intervals.
- Skiing – mode of transport, recreational activity and competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and the International Ski Federation (FIS).
- Humanities – academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences.
- Area studies – comprehensive interdisciplinary research and academic study of the people and communities of particular regions. Disciplines applied include history, political science, sociology, cultural studies, languages, geography, literature, and related disciplines.
- Sinology – study of China and things related to China, such as its classical language and literature.
- Classical studies – branch of the Humanities comprising the languages, literature, philosophy, history, art, archaeology and all other cultural elements of the ancient Mediterranean world (Bronze Age ca. BC 3000 – Late Antiquity ca. AD 300–600); especially Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.
- Language: Constructed languages (Esperanto), English
- Literature: Books • Comics • Children's literature • French literature • Poetry • Writing
- Authors: Jane Austen • Charles Dickens • William Shakespeare • Oscar Wilde • Kazi Nazrul Islam
- Novels: Dragonlance, Harry Potter, Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
- Fictional worlds: Discworld, James Bond, Middle-earth, Narnia, Oz, Fictional characters
- Performing arts
- Dance: Ballet
- Film: A Nightmare on Elm Street, Academy Award, Alien, Animation, Bollywood, Disney, Indiana Jones, Silent film, Star Wars
- Music: Music of Australia • Music of Canada • Record production
- Styles: Alternative rock, Blues, Christian music, Classical guitar, Classical music, Country music, Electronic music, Eurovision, Guitar, Heavy metal (Christian metal), Hip hop, Indian classical music, Industrial music, Jazz, K-pop, Latin music, Marching band, Percussion, Piano, Pipe organ, Pop music, Progressive rock, Punk rock, Rock and Roll, Rock music, R&B and Soul Music
- Artists: AC/DC, AKB48, A. R. Rahman, Bryan Adams, Aerosmith, Christina Aguilera, Backstreet Boys, The Beach Boys, The Beatles, Justin Bieber, Björk, Brandy Norwood, Mariah Carey, Cher, Kelly Clarkson, The Clash, Miley Cyrus, Celine Dion, Dream Theater, Bob Dylan, Grateful Dead, Eminem, Fergie, Marvin Gaye, Girls Aloud, Green Day, Iron Maiden, The Jackson Family, Janet Jackson, Michael Jackson, The Kinks, Beyoncé, Lady Gaga, Avril Lavigne, Led Zeppelin, Linkin Park, Madonna, Miles Davis, Motörhead, Katy Perry, Pink Floyd, Powderfinger, Elvis Presley, Queen, Rihanna, The Rolling Stones, Sakis Rouvas, Rush, Santana, Britney Spears, The Supremes, Slipknot, Shania Twain, Shreya Ghoshal, U2, Usher, Rufus Wainwright, Neil Young, Frank Zappa, Shakira
- Opera: Gilbert & Sullivan
- Television: Australian television, BBC, The Big Bang Theory, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Cartoon Network, Doctor Who, EastEnders, Ed, Edd n Eddy, Family Guy, Friends, Futurama, House, M.D., M*A*S*H, Millennium, Monty Python, Muppets, Nickelodeon, SpongeBob SquarePants, Star Trek, 24, The Simpsons, Sherlock Holmes
- Theatre: Musical theatre
- Visual arts:
- Anime and manga (Dragon Ball) • Architecture (Portal) • Cartoon • Computer graphics • Design • Graffiti • Origami • Photography • Studio Ghibli • Textile arts (Fashion, Knitting) • Typography
- Genre: Comedy • Furry • Horror fiction • King Arthur • Mythology • Pornography • Speculative fiction • Steampunk • Superhero fiction
Recreation and Entertainment
- Food: Bacon
- Drink: Beer, Coffee, Liquor, Wine
- Sports: Asian Games · Association football (A-League, Football in Argentina, Association football variants, Football in Africa, Football in Germany, Football in India, English football, Soccer in the United States, Women's association football) • Athletics • Australian rules football • Badminton • Baseball • Basketball (College basketball, National Basketball Association) • Sport of Canada • Commonwealth Games • Cricket (Australian cricket team in England in 1948, Indian Premier League) • Cycling • Fencing • Figure skating • Fishing • Gridiron football (American football, Canadian football, College football, National Football League) • Golf • Gymnastics • Handball • Horse racing • Ice hockey • Martial arts (Karate) • Olympics • Paralympics • Professional wrestling • Racing (Motorsport: Formula One, NASCAR, Motorcycle racing) • Rock climbing • Rugby (Rugby league, Rugby union) • Sailing • Snooker • Tennis • Water sports (Swimming, Underwater diving) • Women's sport
- Games: Amusement parks • Strategy games (Chess, Warhammer) • Role-playing games (Dungeons & Dragons)
- Video games: Final Fantasy • Halo • Mario • Massively multiplayer online games • Nintendo • PlayStation • Pokémon • Sega • SNK • The Sims • Sonic the Hedgehog • Xbox • Zelda
- Hobbies, Crafts and Other: Gardening • Gemology and Jewelry • Home improvement • Numismatics • Philately • Radio • Scouting • Toys (Lego)
- Crafts and hobbies