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Wikipedia's contents: Technology and applied sciences

A rotating carbon nanotube.
Technology is an expanded concept that deals with a species' usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt to its environment. In human civilization, it is a consequence of science and engineering, although several technological advances predate the formalization of these two disciplines. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas – examples include construction technology, medical technology, or state-of-the-art technology.

The human race's use of technology began with the conversion of plentiful natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear bombs.

Applied science is the application of knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to solving practical problems. For example, fields of engineering are applied sciences. Applied science is important for technology development. Its use in industrial settings is usually referred to as research and development (R&D).

Technology and applied sciences: OverviewListsOutlinesPortalsCategoriesGlossariesIndexes

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Main articles: Technology and Applied science

Technological concepts and issues – Appropriate technology • Diffusion of innovations in science • Doomsday device • High technology • History of science and technology • History of technology • Industry • Innovation • Knowledge economy • Persuasion technology • Pollution • Posthumanism • Precautionary principle • Research and development • Strategy of technology • Superpowers • Technicism • Technocapitalism • Technocriticism • Techno-progressivism • Technological convergence • Technological evolution • Technological determinism • Technological diffusion • Technological singularity • Technology acceptance model • Technology assessment • Technology lifecycle • Technology transfer • Technology Tree • Technorealism • Timeline of invention • Transhumanism

Technologies and applied sciences – Aerospace • Agriculture, Agricultural science & Agronomy • Architecture • Artificial intelligence • Automation • Automobile • Big Science • Biotechnology • Cartography • Communication • Computing (Computer science (List of open problems in computer science), Information systems, Information technology, Programming, Software engineering, Computer engineering) • Construction • Design • Electronics • Energy development • Energy storage • Engineering (Chemical engineering, Civil engineering, Electrical engineering, Mechanical engineering) • Ergonomics • Firefighting • Food science • Forensics • Forestry • Free software • Health sciences • Health Informatics • Industry • Information science (Library and information science) • Internet • Machines • Management • Manufacturing • Mass communication • Mass production • Medicine (Unsolved problems in neuroscience) • Military science • Military technology and equipment • Mining • Nanotechnology • Nuclear technology • Packaging and labeling • Processes • Robotics • Space exploration • Technology forecasting • Telecommunications • Tools • Transport • Vehicles • Weapons

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Applied science – application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical environment. Examples include testing a theoretical model through the use of formal science or solving a practical problem through the use of natural science.

Technology – making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures.

Technologies and applied sciences

  • Aerospace – flight or transport above the surface of the Earth.
    • Space exploration – the physical investigation of the space more than 100 km above the Earth by either manned or unmanned spacecraft.
  • Applied physics – physics which is intended for a particular technological or practical use. It is usually considered as a bridge or a connection between "pure" physics and engineering.
  • Agriculture – cultivation of plants, animals, and other living organisms.
    • Fishing – activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping.
      • Fisheries – a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery. According to the FAO, a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats, purpose of the activities or a combination of the foregoing features".
      • Fishing industry – industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by the FAO as including recreational, subsistence and commercial fishing, and the harvesting, processing, and marketing sectors.
    • Forestry – art and science of tree resources, including plantations and natural stands. The main goal of forestry is to create and implement systems that allow forests to continue a sustainable provision of environmental supplies and services.
    • Organic gardening and farming
    • Sustainable agriculture
  • Communication
    • Books
    • Telecommunication – the transfer of information at a distance, including signaling, telegraphy, telephony, telemetry, radio, television, and data communications.
      • Radio – Aural or encoded telecommunications.
      • Internet – the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP).
      • Television broadcasting – Visual and aural telecommunications.
  • Computing – any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Computing includes designing and building hardware and software systems; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; creating and using communications and entertainment media; and more.
    • Computer engineering – discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer systems, from designing individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design.
      • Computers – general purpose devices that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, computers can solve more than one kind of problem.
    • Computer science – the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems.
    • Information technology – the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications.
    • Software engineering – the systematic approach to the development, operation, maintenance, and retirement of computer software.
      • Programming – the process of designing, writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code of computer programs.
      • Software development – development of a software product, which entails computer programming (process of writing and maintaining the source code), but also encompasses a planned and structured process from the conception of the desired software to its final manifestation.
      • C++ – one of the most popular programming languages with application domains including systems software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games.
      • Perl – high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language. Used for text processing, CGI scripting, graphics programming, system administration, network programming, finance, bioinformatics, and more.
    • Software – one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for one or more purposes. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.
      • Free software – software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction.
      • Search engines – information retrieval systems designed to help find information stored on a computer system.
    • Internet – the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP).
    • Computer industry
      • Apple Inc. – manufacturer and retailer of computers, hand-held computing devices, and related products and services.
      • Google – Google Inc. and its Internet services including Google Search.
  • Construction – building or assembly of any physical structure.
  • Design – the art and science of creating the abstract form and function for an object or environment.
    • Architecture – the art and science of designing buildings.
  • Electronics
  • Industry – production of an economic good or service.
    • Automation – use of machinery to replace human labor.
    • Industrial machinery
    • Machines – devices that perform or assist in performing useful work.
    • Manufacturing – use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale.
    • Robotics – deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots.
  • Energy
    • Energy development – ongoing effort to provide abundant, efficient, and accessible energy resources through knowledge, skills, and construction.
    • Energy storage – the storage of a form of energy that can then be used later.
    • Nuclear technology – the technology and application of the spontaneous and induced reactions of atomic nuclei.
    • Wind energy
    • Solar energy
  • Engineering – the application of science, mathematics, and technology to produce useful goods and systems.
  • Firefighting – act of extinguishing fires. A firefighter fights fires to prevent destruction of life, property and the environment. Firefighting is a professional technical skill.
  • Forensic science – application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or a civil action.
  • Health
    • Biotechnology – applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts.
    • Ergonomics – the study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body, its movements, and its cognitive abilities.
  • Hydrology – The study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
  • Information science
    • Cartography – the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.
    • Library science – technology related to libraries and the information fields.
  • Military science – the study of the technique, psychology, practice and other phenomena which constitute war and armed conflict.
  • Mining – extraction of mineral resources from the earth.
  • Nanotechnology – The study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally, nanotechnology deals with structures sized between 1 to 100 nanometre in at least one dimension, and involves developing materials or devices possessing at least one dimension within that size.
  • Prehistoric technology – technologies that emerged before recorded history (i.e., before the development of writing).
  • Sustainability – capacity to endure. In ecology, the word describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. For humans, sustainability is the potential for long-term maintenance of well being, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions.
  • Transport – the transfer of people or things from one place to another.
    • Rail transport – means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks consisting of steel rails installed on sleepers/ties and ballast.
    • Vehicles – mechanical devices for transporting people or things.
      • Automobiles – human-guided powered land-vehicles.
      • Bicycles – human-powered land-vehicles with two or more wheels.
      • Motorcycles – single-track, engine-powered, motor vehicles. They are also called motorbikes, bikes, or cycles.
      • Vehicle components
        • Tires – ring-shaped coverings that fit around wheel rims

Technologies: Emerging Technology

Architecture and Construction

Buildings and structures: Tallest (London) • Irish buildingsHistoric landmarks
Lighthouses and lightvessels: BelgiumCanadaFranceGermanySwedenUnited States
Windmills: UK
Watermills: UK
Energy infrastructure: LargestCoalFuel oilNatural gasNuclearHydroelectricGeothermalPhotovoltaicSolar thermalTidal • Wind (OnshoreOffshore)
Water infrastructure: LargestReservoirs and damsTallestCanals

Computing: AMD microprocessorsIntel microprocessorsIntel chipsetsSoftware bugsOpen source software packagesGNU packagesOperating systemsUnixesUnix programsMachines running CP/MIBM productsUNIVAC productsMicrocomputersGraphics file formatsTest automationScreen readers

Internet and World Wide Web: TCP and UDP port numbersInternet top-level domainsNewsgroupsHTTP status codesXML and HTML charactersDigital library projectsColorsHTML editorsWikis
Web technologies: Java APIs.NET APIsWeb 2.0Ajax
Computer science: AlgorithmsData structuresPublicationsOpen problems
Programming languages: Alphabetical listCategorical listChronological listGenerational list
Character sets and encodings: ASCIIEBCDICISO 646ISO 8859-1ISO 8859-2ISO 8859-3ISO 8859-8ISO 8859-11ISO 8859-15UnicodeUTF-7UTF-8UTF-16UTF-32Windows-1252

Electronics

Engineering: Branches

Fire:

Firelighting

Military

Military strategies: Thirty-Six StrategiesMilitary tactics
Air forces of the world
Military air bases: Royal Air ForceRoyal Canadian Air ForceUS Air ForceUS ArmyUS Coast GuardUS Marine CorpsUS Navy
Air force commands: Royal Air ForceUSAAF NAF Component Commands
Aircraft groups: Royal Air Force
Aircraft squadrons: British Army Air CorpsBritish Fleet Air ArmRoyal Air ForceUS Air ForceUS ArmyUS Marine CorpsUS Navy
Aircraft wings: Royal NavyUS Navy
Armies of the world
Armies (by number) • Military corps (by numberby name) • Military divisions (by numberby name)
United Kingdom: Regiments of FootRegiments (1881)Regiments (1903)Regiments (1922)Regiments (1962)Regiments (1994)British Forces in the American Revolutionary War
United States of America: ArmiesCorpsDivisionsDefense contractorsMilitary bases
Navies of the world: Fleets
Military groups in WWI and WWII
Australia: Divisions in WWIWWII
Britain: Groups in WWII • Armies in WWIWWII • Corps in WWI • Divisions in WWIWWII
Canada: Divisions in WWII
Germany: Prisoner of War Camps in WWII
India: Corps in WWII • Divisions in WWII
Poland: Divisions in WWII
United States of America: Groups in WWII
Terrorists of the world: Terrorist groupsTerrorist incidents
Military bases
Military events: BattlesGuerrilla movementsInvasionsMilitary missions, operations, and projectsTerrorist incidentsWars
Weapons and miscellaneous topics
Military technology and equipment: WeaponsAircraft weaponsWorld War II weaponsMissilesArmoured fighting vehiclesNATO reporting namesSwords
Artillery: By countryWWII • Largest cannons by caliber
Military aircraft: LuftwaffeSoviet Union and CISUnited StatesBritish Army Air CorpsRoyal Air ForceFleet Air ArmIsraeliAustralian Air ForceAustralian NavyCanadian Air ForceCanadian NavyNew Zealand Air Force and NavySouth AfricanIrishArmée de l'AirNATO reporting names for misc aircraftNATO reporting names for transport aircraftUS X-planes
Naval technology
By era/war: World War II
By type: Aircraft CarriersBattleshipsCruisersDestroyersLSTs
By operator: AustraliaCanadaGermanyIndiaJapanNetherlandsUnited KingdomRoyal Fleet Auxiliary (UK)United StatesMilitary Sealift Command (USA)Soviet Union

Space exploration: Unmanned space missionsHuman spaceflights(by program)Space disastersAstronautsTimeline of astronauts by nationalityList of NRO Launches

Transportation: Transport museums

Aviation: AircraftManufacturersEnginesEngine manufacturersWeaponsBy date and use
Aviation accidentsBy airlineBy locationBy year
AirportsFRBEGRJPPLUKAU
Land transport
Automobiles: ManufacturersTrucks
List of convoy codes
Cycles: Bicycle parts
Rail transport
Heritage railways
Light-rail transitMelbourne tram routesMetrosLondon Underground stationsclosed London Underground stationsMelbourne railway stationsclosed Melbourne railway stationsList of famous trainsList of railway stations - UKclosed New York City Subway stations
Road systems
Roads and highways: US InterstatesUK motorwaysHighways in AustraliaList of U.S. RoutesUS state highwaysRoads and Transport Authority serving Dubai
Bridges: UKUSALargest
Tunnels: NLNZUK
Nautical / Shipping technology: ShipsFictional shipsSailboatsMarinas
Space transport: SpacecraftList of unmanned spacecraft by programList of Solar System probesList of landings on extraterrestrial bodies

Cscr-featured.svgTechnology
Portals
Engineering • Agriculture and Agronomy  • Astronomy • Biotechnology • Bridges • ElectronicsCscr-featured.svg (Telecommunication) • Mass surveillance • EnergyCscr-featured.svg (Renewable energyCscr-featured.svg) • Forestry • Hazardous Materials • Infrastructure • Mining • Nanotechnology • Nuclear technology • Robotics Cscr-featured.svg
Computing and Information technology
Computer networking (InternetCscr-featured.svg, IRC) • Computer programming (Python programming, Java) • Computer science (Artificial intelligence, Computer graphics) • Computer security (Cryptography) • Software (Free software, Linux) • Apple • Google • Microsoft
Transport
AviationCscr-featured.svg • Bicycles/Cycling • Buses • Trucks • Cars (Australian, Japanese) • London TransportCscr-featured.svg • Nautical • Roads (Australian Roads, Canada Roads, U.S. RoadsCscr-featured.svg, California Roads, Maryland RoadsCscr-featured.svg, Michigan HighwaysCscr-featured.svg, New York Roads, Washington Roads) • Spaceflight • TrainsCscr-featured.svg (UK Railways, Railways in India, Sri Lanka Railways) • Trams (UK Trams) • UK Waterways

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P literature.svg Glossaries   (see for all subject areas)

Technology and applied sciences

Computing and Information technology

Transport

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Main categories: Technology and Applied sciences

Main indexes: Index of science articles and Index of technology articles.
Agriculture
Agricultural science
Agronomy
Fishing
Forestry
Architecture
Artificial intelligence
Automation
Big Science
Biotechnology
Index of biomedical engineering articles
Cartography
Chemical engineering
Communication
Telecommunication
Internet
Telephone
Video
Computing
Computer science
Information technology
Internet
Programming
Android OS
Software engineering
Construction
Structural engineering
Dentistry
Design
Education
Electronics
Energy
Energy development
Energy storage
Steam energy
Renewable energy
Index of solar energy articles
Engineering
Structural engineering
Ergonomics
Family and consumer science
Firefighting
Forensics
Free software
Health
Health sciences
Industry
Industrial machinery
Internet
Library science (aka "Library and information science")
Machines
Management
Theory of Constraints
Manufacturing
Marketing
Mass production
Medicine
Military
Military technology and equipment
Mining
Nanotechology
Nuclear technology
Nutrition
Optical technology
Oral health
Radio
Robotics
Sound-related
Space exploration
Tools
Transport
Aerospace
Aviation
Vehicles
Automobile
Weapons
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