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Portal:Coronavirus disease 2019

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Coronavirus disease 2019 portal

Video summary (script)

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). First identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, it resulted in an ongoing pandemic. The first case may be traced back to 17 November 2019. As of 3 June 2020, more than 6.41 million cases have been reported across 188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 380,000 deaths. More than 2.75 million people have recovered.[1]


According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are no vaccines nor specific antiviral treatments for COVID-19. On 1 May 2020, the United States gave emergency use authorization to the antiviral remdesivir for people hospitalized with severe COVID‑19 Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID‑19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Local transmission of the disease has occurred in most countries across all six WHO regions. Read more...
20200403 Flatten the curve animated GIF.gif

About the virus

Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.jpg

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the strain of coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness. Colloquially known as simply the coronavirus, it was previously referred to by its provisional name, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and has also been called human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19 or hCoV-19). As described by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, it is the successor to SARS-CoV-1. SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. It is contagious in humans, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has designated the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Read more...

About the spread and symptoms

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 4.0.svg

Common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and loss of smell and taste. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) likely precipitated by a cytokine storm, multi-organ failure, septic shock, and blood clots. The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is typically around five days, but may range from two to fourteen days. Read more...

The virus is primarily spread between people during close contact,[a] most often via small droplets produced by coughing,[b] sneezing, and talking.[2][3][5] The droplets usually fall to the ground or onto surfaces rather than travelling through air over long distances.[2] Less commonly, people may become infected by touching a contaminated surface and then touching their face.[2][3] It is most contagious during the first three days after the onset of symptoms, although spread is possible before symptoms appear, and from people who do not show symptoms.[2][3]
Read more...

Disease progress

Location[c] Cases[d] Deaths[e] Recov.[f] Ref.
Worldwide 6,411,023 380,880 2,750,891 [1]
United States[g] 1,873,498 107,778 420,785 [13]
Brazil 558,237 31,309 240,627 [14][15]
Russia[h] 432,277 5,215 195,957 [16]
United Kingdom[i] 279,856 39,728 No data [18][19]
Spain[j] 239,932 27,127 150,376 [20]
Italy 233,515 33,530 160,092 [21][22]
India 207,615 5,815 100,303 [23]
Germany[k] 184,091 8,674 166,428 [25][24]
Peru 174,884 4,767 69,257 [26][27]
Turkey 165,555 4,585 129,921 [28]
Iran 157,562 7,942 123,077 [29]
France[l] 151,325 28,940 68,812 [30]
Chile[m] 108,686 1,188 No data [31]
Mexico 97,326 10,637 70,308 [32][33]
Canada 92,410 7,395 50,357 [34]
Saudi Arabia 91,182 579 68,159 [35]
China[n] 83,021 4,634 78,314 [36]
Pakistan 80,463 1,688 28,923 [37]
Qatar 60,259 43 36,036 [38]
Belgium[o] 58,685 9,522 15,959 [40]
Bangladesh 55,140 746 11,590 [41]
Netherlands[p] 46,733 5,977 No data [43]
Belarus 45,116 248 20,171 [44]
Sweden 40,803 4,542 4,971 [45][46]
Ecuador 40,414 3,438 4,000 [47]
Singapore 36,405 24 23,175 [48][49]
South Africa 35,812 705 17,291 [50]
United Arab Emirates 35,788 269 18,726 [51]
Portugal 32,895 1,436 19,869 [52]
Colombia 31,833 1,009 11,142 [53]
Switzerland 30,893 1,660 28,600 [54][55]
Kuwait 29,359 230 15,750 [56]
Indonesia 28,233 1,698 8,406 [57]
Egypt[q] 27,536 1,052 7,642 [58]
Ireland 25,066 1,658 22,089 [59][60]
Ukraine[r] 24,823 735 10,440 [61]
Poland 24,545 1,102 12,014 [45][62]
Romania 19,669 1,288 13,800 [63]
Philippines 18,997 966 4,063 [64][65]
Argentina[s] 18,306 569 5,696 [67]
Dominican Republic 17,572 502 10,893 [68]
Israel[t] 17,342 290 14,955 [69]
Afghanistan 17,267 294 1,522 [70]
Japan[u] 16,986 900 14,771 [71][72]
Austria 16,759 669 15,629 [73]
Panama 14,095 352 9,514 [74]
Oman 13,538 67 2,845 [75]
Bahrain 12,311 19 7,407 [76]
Kazakhstan 11,796 44 5,996 [77]
Denmark[v] 11,734 580 10,489 [78]
South Korea 11,590 273 10,467 [79]
Serbia[w] 11,523 245 6,852 [80]
Bolivia 10,991 376 1,298 [81]
Nigeria 10,819 314 3,239 [82]
Armenia 10,524 170 3,454 [83]
Algeria 9,626 667 6,067 [84][85]
Czech Republic 9,374 323 6,693 [86]
Moldova[x] 8,795 310 4,863 [87]
Ghana 8,548 38 3,132 [88]
Norway[y] 8,455 237 7,727 [91]
Malaysia 7,970 115 6,531 [92]
Morocco[z] 7,910 206 6,643 [94]
Iraq 7,387 235 3,508 [95]
Australia[aa] 7,226 102 6,625 [96]
Finland[ab] 6,911 320 5,500 [97]
Cameroon 6,585 200 3,676 [99][100]
Azerbaijan[ac] 6,260 76 3,665 [101]
Guatemala 5,586 123 824 [102]
Honduras 5,527 225 563 [103]
Sudan 5,310 307 1,625 [104]
Tajikistan 4,100 47 2,217 [105]
Puerto Rico 4,023 140 850 [106][13]
Luxembourg 4,020 110 3,848 [107]
Hungary 3,931 534 2,190 [108]
Guinea 3,886 23 2,267 [109]
Senegal 3,836 45 1,954 [110]
Djibouti 3,779 25 1,607 [111]
Uzbekistan 3,769 15 2,919 [112]
DR Congo[ad] 3,325 72 482 [113]
Thailand 3,084 58 2,968 [114]
Ivory Coast 3,024 33 1,501 [115]
Greece 2,937 179 1,374 [116]
Gabon 2,803 20 779 [117]
El Salvador 2,705 49 1,179 [118]
Bulgaria 2,560 146 1,206 [119]
Bosnia & Herzegovina 2,551 157 1,939 [120]
Haiti 2,507 48 24 [121]
North Macedonia 2,492 145 1,605 [122]
Croatia 2,246 103 2,088 [123]
Nepal 2,099 8 266 [124][125]
Kenya 2,093 71 499 [126]
Cuba[ae] 2,092 83 1,827 [127]
Somalia[af] 2,089 79 380 [128]
Estonia 1,880 69 1,650 [129]
Kyrgyzstan 1,871 20 1,265 [130]
Maldives 1,841 7 608 [131]
Venezuela 1,819 18 334 [132]
Iceland 1,806 10 1,794 [133]
Lithuania 1,684 71 1,260 [134]
Sri Lanka 1,683 10 823 [135]
Slovakia 1,525 28 1,375 [136]
Slovenia 1,475 109 1,358 [137][138]
Mali 1,351 78 769 [139]
Ethiopia 1,344 14 231 [140]
Guinea-Bissau 1,339 8 53 [141]
Equatorial Guinea 1,306 12 200 [142]
Lebanon 1,242 27 719 [143]
Albania 1,184 33 898 [144]
Central African Republic 1,173 4 23 [145]
New Zealand 1,154 22 1,131 [146]
Nicaragua 1,118 46 370 [45][147]
Costa Rica 1,105 10 682 [148]
USS Theodore Roosevelt[ag] 1,102 1 53 [149]
Hong Kong 1,094 4 1,037 [150]
Zambia 1,089 7 912 [151]
Tunisia 1,086 48 965 [152]
Charles de Gaulle[ah] 1,081 0 0 [153]
Latvia 1,079 24 760 [45][157]
Kosovo 1,064 30 829 [158]
Paraguay 1,013 11 498 [159]
South Sudan 994 10 6 [160][161]
Niger 960 65 848 [162]
Cyprus[ai] 952 17 790 [163]
Sierra Leone 896 46 480 [164][165]
Burkina Faso 884 53 720 [166][167]
Madagascar 845 6 185 [168]
Andorra 844 51 733 [169]
Uruguay[aj] 826 23 689 [170]
Chad 803 66 562 [171]
Georgia[ak] 800 13 640 [172]
Jordan 755 9 549 [173]
Diamond Princess[u] 712 14 653 [71][174]
San Marino 672 42 384 [175]
Mauritania 668 31 55 [176]
Malta 620 9 554 [177]
Congo[al] 611 20 179 [178][179]
Jamaica 590 9 356 [180]
Donetsk PR[am] 553 20 144 [181]
Tanzania 509 21 183 [182][183]
Uganda 489 0 82 [184][185]
São Tomé & Príncipe 484 12 68 [186]
Cape Verde 466 5 237 [187]
Palestine 451 3 372 [188]
Togo 445 13 230 [189]
Taiwan[an] 443 7 427 [191]
Luhansk PR[am] 419 6 321 [192]
Yemen 399 87 15 [193]
Rwanda 384 1 269 [194][195]
Somaliland[ao] 359 22 33 [196]
Malawi 358 4 42 [197]
Isle of Man[ap] 336 24 311 [198]
Mauritius 335 10 322 [199]
Vietnam 328 0 293 [200]
Montenegro 324 9 315 [201]
Liberia 311 28 1567 [202]
Jersey 308 29 290 [203]
Mozambique 307 2 98 [204]
Eswatini 294 3 198 [205]
Guernsey 252 13 238 [206]
Benin 244 3 148 [207]
Myanmar 233 6 153 [208]
Zimbabwe 206 4 29 [209][210]
Faroe Islands 187 0 187 [211]
Mongolia 185 0 44 [212]
Libya 182 5 52 [213]
Guam[ag] 177 5 148 [13][214]
Gibraltar 172 0 152 [215]
Guyana 153 12 70 [216]
Cayman Islands 151 1 77 [217]
Costa Atlantica 148 0 0 [218]
Bermuda 141 9 112 [219]
Brunei 141 2 138 [220][221]
Comoros 132 2 27 [222]
Greg Mortimer[aj] 128 1 No data [223][224]
Cambodia 125 0 123 [225]
Syria[aq] 123 6 50 [226]
Trinidad & Tobago 117 8 108 [227]
Northern Cyprus[ar] 108 4 104 [228]
Bahamas 102 11 48 [229]
Aruba 101 3 98 [230]
Monaco 99 4 90 [231]
Barbados 92 7 76 [232]
Angola 86 4 18 [233]
Liechtenstein 82 1 55 [234][235]
Sint Maarten 77 15 60 [236]
U.S. Virgin Islands 70 6 62 [237]
Burundi 63 1 33 [238]
French Polynesia 60 0 60 [239]
Suriname 54 1 9 [240]
Bhutan 47 0 9 [241]
Macau 45 0 45 [242]
Artsakh[as] 43 0 26 [243]
South Ossetia[at] 42 0 30 [243]
Botswana 40 1 23 [244][245]
Eritrea 39 0 39 [246]
Abkhazia[au] 28 1 23 [243]
Antigua & Barbuda 26 3 19 [247][248]
Saint Vincent[av] 26 0 14 [249][250]
Namibia 25 0 16 [251]
The Gambia 25 1 20 [252]
East Timor 24 0 24 [253]
Grenada 23 0 18 [254][255]
Northern Mariana Islands 23 2 16 [256]
Curaçao 20 1 15 [257]
New Caledonia 20 0 18 [258]
Laos 19 0 16 [259]
Belize 18 2 16 [260]
Fiji 18 0 15 [261]
Saint Lucia 18 0 18 [262][263]
Dominica 18 0 16 [264]
Saint Kitts & Nevis 15 0 15 [265]
Falkland Islands 13 0 13 [266]
Greenland 13 0 11 [267]
MS Zaandam[aw] 13 4 No data [270][271]
Coral Princess[ax] 12 2 No data [273]
Turks & Caicos Islands 12 1 10 [274]
Vatican City 12 0 2 [275]
Montserrat 11 1 10 [276]
Seychelles 11 0 11 [277]
British Virgin Islands 8 1 7 [278]
HNLMS Dolfijn[ay] 8 0 No data [279]
Papua New Guinea 8 0 8 [282]
Anguilla 3 0 3 [283]
Saba 3 0 3 [284]
Bonaire 2 0 2 [285]
Lesotho 2 0 1 [286]
Sint Eustatius 2 0 2 [287]
Saint Pierre & Miquelon 1 0 1 [288]
As of 2 June 2020 (UTC) · History of cases: China, international
Notes
  1. ^ Close contact is defined as one metre (~3.3 feet) by the WHO[2] and ~1.8 metres (six feet) by the CDC.[3]
  2. ^ An uncovered cough can travel up to 8.2 metres (27 feet).[4]
  3. ^ Locations. Countries, territories, and international conveyances where cases were diagnosed. The nationality of the infected and the origin of infection may vary. For some countries, cases are split into respective territories and noted accordingly.
  4. ^ Cases. This number shows the cumulative number of confirmed human cases reported to date. The actual number of infections and cases is likely to be higher than reported.[6] Reporting criteria and testing capacity vary between countries.
    The total number of cases may not necessarily add up due to the frequency of values being updated for each location.
  5. ^ Deaths. Reporting criteria vary between countries.
    The total number of deaths may not necessarily add up due to the frequency of values being updated for each location.
  6. ^ Recoveries. May not correspond to actual current figures and not all recoveries may be reported. Reporting criteria vary between countries.
    The total number of recoveries may not necessarily add up due to the frequency of values being updated for each location.
  7. ^ United States
    1. Figures include cases identified on the Grand Princess.
    2. Figures do not include the unincorporated territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands, all of which are listed separately.
    3. Not all states or overseas territories report recovery data.
    4. Cases include clinically diagnosed cases as per CDC guidelines.[7]
    5. Recoveries and deaths include probable deaths and people released from quarantine as per CDC guidelines.[8][9][10]
    6. Figures from the United States Department of Defense are only released on a branch-by branch basis since April 2020, without distinction between domestic and foreign deployment, and cases may be reported to local health authorities.[11]
    7. Cases for the USS Theodore Roosevelt, currently docked at Guam, are reported separate from national figures but included in the Navy's totals.
    8. There is also one case reported from Guantanamo Bay Naval Base not included in any other nation or territory's counts.[12] Since April 2020, the United States Department of Defense has directed all bases, including Guantanamo Bay, to not publicize case statistics.[11]
  8. ^ Russia
    1. Including cases from the disputed Crimea and Sevastopol.
    2. Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance".
  9. ^ United Kingdom
    1. Excluding all British Overseas Territories and Crown dependencies.
    2. As of 23 March 2020, the UK government does not publish the number of recoveries. The last update on 22 March reported 135 recovered patients.[17]
  10. ^ Spain
    1. Excludes serology–confirmed cases.
  11. ^ Germany
    1. Not all state authorities count recoveries.[24]
    2. Recoveries include estimations by the Robert Koch Institute.[24][25]
  12. ^ France
    1. Including French overseas regions of French Guiana, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy.
    2. Excluding collectivities of New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
    3. Recoveries only include hospitalized cases.[30]
    4. Figures for total confirmed cases and total deaths include data from both hospital and nursing home (ESMS: établissements sociaux et médico-sociaux).[30]
  13. ^ Chile
    1. Including the special territory of Easter Island.
    2. On 2 July 2020, the Chilean government decided to not publish the number of recovered patients.
  14. ^ China
    1. Excluding 357 asymptomatic cases under medical observation as of 2 June 2020.
    2. Asymptomatic cases were not reported before 31 March 2020.
    3. Excluding Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
    4. Does not include Taiwan.
  15. ^ Belgium
    1. The number of deaths also includes untested cases and cases in retirement homes that presumably died because of COVID-19, whilst most countries only include deaths of tested cases in hospitals.[39]
  16. ^ Netherlands
    1. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of a) the Netherlands* [the country as opposed to the kingdom; listed here], which in turn includes the Caribbean Netherlands, that are made up of the special municipalities Bonaire*, Saba* and Sint Eustatius*; b) Aruba*; c) Curaçao*; and d) Sint Maarten*. All regions marked with an asterisk are listed separately.
    2. The Dutch Government agency RIVM, responsible for the constituent country the Netherlands, does not count its number of recoveries.[42]
  17. ^ Egypt
    1. Includes cases identified on the MS River Anuket.
  18. ^ Ukraine
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed Crimea and Sevastopol. Cases in these territories are included in the Russian total.
    2. Excluding cases from the unrecognized Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics.
  19. ^ Argentina
    1. Excluding confirmed cases on the claimed territory of the Falkland Islands. Since 11 April, the Argentine Ministry of Health includes them in their official reports.[66]
  20. ^ Israel
    1. Including cases from the disputed Golan Heights.
    2. Excluding cases from the Palestinian National Authority.
  21. ^ a b Diamond Princess and Japan
    1. The British cruise ship Diamond Princess was in Japanese waters, and the Japanese administration was asked to manage its quarantine, with the passengers having not entered Japan. Therefore, this case is included in neither the Japanese nor British official counts. The World Health Organization classifies the cases as being located "on an international conveyance".
  22. ^ Denmark
    1. The autonomous territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland are listed separately.
  23. ^ Serbia
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed territory of Kosovo.
  24. ^ Moldova
    1. Including the disputed territory of Transnistria.
  25. ^ Norway
    1. Estimation of the number of infected:
      • As of 23 March 2020, according to figures from just over 40 per cent of all GPs in Norway, 20,200 patients have been registered with the "corona code" R991. The figure includes both cases where the patient has been diagnosed with coronavirus infection through testing, and where the GP has used the "corona code" after assessing the patient's symptoms against the criteria by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.[89]
      • As of 24 March 2020, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health estimates that between 7,120 and 23,140 Norwegians are infected with the coronavirus.[90]
  26. ^ Morocco
    1. Including cases in the disputed Western Sahara territory controlled by Morocco. There are no confirmed cases in the rest of Western Sahara.[93]
  27. ^ Australia
    1. Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance". Ten cases, including one fatality recorded by the Australian government.
  28. ^ Finland
    1. Including the autonomous region of the Åland Islands.
    2. The number of recoveries is an estimate based on reported cases which were reported at least two weeks ago and there is no other monitoring data on the course of the disease.[97] The exact number of recoveries is not known, as only a small proportion of patients have been hospitalized.[98]
  29. ^ Azerbaijan
    1. Excluding the self-declared state of Artsakh.
  30. ^ DR Congo
  31. ^ Cuba
    1. Includes cases on the MS Braemar.
    2. Excluding cases from Guantanamo Bay, which is governed by the United States.
  32. ^ Somalia
    1. Excluding the de facto state of Somaliland.
  33. ^ a b Guam and USS Theodore Roosevelt
    1. Cases for the USS Theodore Roosevelt, currently docked at Guam, are reported separately.
  34. ^ Charles de Gaulle
    1. Including cases on the escort frigate Chevalier Paul.
    2. Florence Parly, Minister of the Armed Forces, reported to the National Assembly's National Defense and Armed Forces Committee [fr] that 2010 sailors of the carrier battle group led by Charles de Gaulle had been tested, with 1081 tests returning positive so far.[153] Many of these cases were aboard Charles de Gaulle, some of the cases were reportedly aboard French frigate Chevalier Paul, and it is unclear if any other ships in the battle group had cases on board.[154][155][156]
  35. ^ Cyprus
  36. ^ a b Greg Mortimer and Uruguay
    1. Although currently anchored off the coast of Uruguay, cases for the Greg Mortimer are currently reported separately. Six have been transferred inland for hospitalization.
  37. ^ Georgia
    1. Excluding the de facto states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  38. ^ Congo
    1. Also known as the Republic of the Congo and not to be confused with the DR Congo.
  39. ^ a b Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republic
    1. Note that these territories are distinct from the Ukraine-administered regions of the Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts.
  40. ^ Taiwan
    1. Including cases from the ROCS Pan Shi.[190]
  41. ^ Somaliland
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Somalia.
  42. ^ Isle of Man
    1. Recoveries are presumed. Defined as "An individual testing positive for coronavirus who completes the 14 day self-isolation period from the onset of symptoms who is at home on day 15, or an individual who is discharged from hospital following more severe symptoms."[198]
  43. ^ Syria
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed Golan Heights.
  44. ^ Northern Cyprus
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Cyprus.
  45. ^ Artsakh
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Azerbaijan.
  46. ^ South Ossetia
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Georgia.
  47. ^ Abkhazia
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Georgia.
  48. ^ Saint Vincent
    1. The sovereign state of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
  49. ^ MS Zaandam
    1. Including cases from MS Rotterdam.
    2. The MS Rotterdam rendezvoused with the Zaandam on 26 March off the coast of Panama City to provide support and evacuate healthy passengers. Both have since docked in Florida.[268][269]
    3. MS Zaandam and Rotterdam's numbers are currently not counted in any national figures.
  50. ^ Coral Princess
    1. The cruise ship Coral Princess has tested positive cases since early April 2020 and has since docked in Miami.[272]
    2. Coral Princess's numbers are currently not counted in any national figures.
  51. ^ HNLMS Dolfijn
    1. All 8 cases currently associated with Dolfijn were reported while the submarine was at sea in the waters between Scotland and the Netherlands.[279]
    2. It is unclear whether the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) is including these cases in their total count, but neither their daily update details nor their daily epidemiological situation reports appear to have mentioned the ship, with a breakdown of cases listing the twelve provinces of the country of the Netherlands (as opposed to the kingdom) accounting for all the cases in the total count.[280][281]
    3. As RIVM does not report recoveries, and militaries are generally less transparent than most government agencies due to operations security concerns, it is assumed that no official report on recoveries is forthcoming.

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National responses

National responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have been varied, and have included containment measures such as lockdowns, quarantines, and curfews. As of 3 June 2020, more than 6.41 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 380,000 deaths. More than 2.75 million people have recovered from the virus.[1] The most affected countries in terms of confirmed cases are the United States, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Turkey and China. Read more...

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Economic impact

Movement of the DJIA between January 2017 and March 2020, showing the all-time high on 12 February, and the subsequent crash.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching consequences beyond the spread of the disease itself and efforts to quarantine it. As the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector. The pandemic caused the largest global recession in history, with more than a third of the global population at the time being placed on lockdown.

Global stock markets fell on 24 February 2020 due to a significant rise in the number of COVID-19 cases outside mainland China. By 28 February 2020, stock markets worldwide saw their largest single-week declines since the 2008 financial crisis. Global stock markets crashed in March 2020, with falls of several percent in the world's major indices. As the pandemic spreads, global conferences and events across technology, fashion, and sports are being cancelled or postponed. While the monetary impact on the travel and trade industry is yet to be estimated, it is likely to be in the billions and increasing. Read more...

Workplace

Hazard controls for COVID-19 in US workplaces are the application of occupational safety and health methodologies for hazard controls to the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The proper hazard controls in the workplace depend on the worksite and job task, based on a risk assessment of sources of exposure, disease severity in the community, and risk factors of individual workers who may be vulnerable to contracting COVID-19.

OSHA considers healthcare and mortuary workers exposed to known or suspected person with COVID-19 to be at high exposure risk, which increases to very high exposure risk if workers perform aerosol-generating procedures on, or collect or handle specimens from, known or suspected person with COVID-19. Hazard controls appropriate for these workers include engineering controls such as negative pressure ventilation rooms, and personal protective equipment appropriate to the job task. Read more...

Misinformation

Fake medical advice, unproven treatments, state-sponsored narratives, and conspiracy theories abound..

The pandemic has resulted in misinformation and conspiracy theories about the scale of the pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. False information, including intentional disinformation, has been spread through social media, text messaging, and mass media, including the tabloid media, conservative media, and state media of countries such as China, Russia, Iran, and Turkmenistan. It has also been spread by state-backed covert operations to generate panic and sow distrust in other countries. In some countries, such as India, Bangladesh, and Ethiopia, journalists have been arrested for allegedly spreading fake news about the pandemic. Read more...

Testing

COVID-19 testing can identify the SARS-CoV-2 virus and includes methods that detect the presence of the virus itself (RT-PCR, isothermal nucleic acid amplification, antigen) and those that detect antibodies produced in response to infection. Detection of antibodies (serological tests) can be used both for diagnosis and for population surveillance. Antibody tests show how many people have had the disease, including those whose symptoms were minor or who were asymptomatic, but may not find antibodies in someone with a current COVID-19 infection since antibodies may not show up for weeks. An accurate mortality rate of the disease and the level of herd immunity in the population can be determined from the results of this test. However, the duration and effectiveness of this immune response are still unclear. Read more...

Vaccine research

A COVID-19 vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Although no vaccine has completed clinical trials, there are multiple efforts in progress to develop such a vaccine. In February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) said it did not expect a vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative virus, to become available in less than 18 months. Previous attempts to develop a vaccine against the coronavirus diseases, SARS and MERS, established considerable knowledge about the structure and function of coronaviruses – which accelerated rapid development during early 2020 of varied technology platforms for a COVID-19 vaccine – but all the previous coronavirus vaccine candidates failed in early-stage clinical trials, with none being advanced to licensing. Read more...

Drug research

COVID‑19 drug development is the research process to develop a preventative vaccine or therapeutic prescription drug that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Internationally by June 2020, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing 159 vaccine candidates and over 300 potential therapies for COVID‑19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research. Read more...

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Recent news

30 May 2020 – COVID-19 pandemic in Russia
Russian President Vladimir Putin announces the adoption of a new package of measures to support the economy and citizens in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. This payment does not cancel but supplements the previously introduced support measures. Additionally, Putin proposed to establish a monthly payment of five thousand rubles for families with children under three years of age. (RT)
15 May 2020 – Economic impact of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, Economy of the United States
The United States House passes a $3 trillion coronavirus relief package. The bill will head to the United States Senate. (NBC News)
14 May 2020 – COVID-19 pandemic
Save the Children reports a surge in deaths of people with coronavirus-like symptoms in Aden, with at least 380 in the last week. Officially, Yemen has only reported 13 COVID-19 deaths. (BBC)
12 May 2020 – China–Australia relations; Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on politics
China suspends imports of beef from four Australian abattoirs, saying that its customs agency "continuously" found violations of inspection and quarantine requirements. Foreign ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian says the suspension comes to "ensure the safety and health of Chinese consumers". This comes after the Australian government last month called for an independent inquiry into the origins of the novel coronavirus. (Reuters)
11 May 2020 – COVID-19 pandemic
New coronavirus clusters are reported in Wuhan—where the virus first emerged—and the north-eastern province of Jilin, after confirming its first case since April 3. (BBC)
Wuhan plans to test all 11 million of their residents for the coronavirus. (Washington Post)

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