Portal:Coronavirus disease 2019

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Coronavirus disease 2019 portal

COVID-19 symptoms
Symptoms of COVID-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include muscle pain, sputum production, diarrhea, sore throat, loss of smell, and abdominal pain. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. As of March 28, 2020, the overall rate of deaths per number of diagnosed cases is 4.6 percent; ranging from 0.2 percent to 15 percent according to age group and other health problems.


The virus is mainly spread during close contact and via respiratory droplets produced when people cough or sneeze. Respiratory droplets may be produced during breathing but the virus is not generally airborne. People may also contract COVID-19 by touching a contaminated surface and then their face. It is most contagious when people are symptomatic, although spread may be possible before symptoms appear. The virus can live on surfaces up to 72 hours. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between two and fourteen days, with an average of five days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia.


Recommended measures to prevent infection include frequent hand washing, social distancing (maintaining physical distance from others, especially from those with symptoms), covering coughs and sneezes with a tissue or inner elbow, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of masks is recommended by some national health authorities for those who suspect they have the virus and their caregivers, but not for the general public, although simple cloth masks may be used by those who desire them. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19. Management involves treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures. Read more...

Recent news

29 March 2020 – 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic
2020 coronavirus pandemic in Oceania
2020 coronavirus pandemic in New Zealand
New Zealand's Ministry of Health reports its first death from COVID-19, a woman in her 70s. (Newstalk ZB)
2020 coronavirus pandemic in Australia
Prime Minister Scott Morrison announces an even stricter lockdown on the nation. Going out for non-essential reasons is completely outlawed, and only two people per household are allowed out. All schools in South Australia are closed temporally. (News.com.au)
29 March 2020 – 2020 coronavirus pandemic in the Philippines
An IAI Westwind jet, chartered by the Philippine government for a medical evacuation flight to Haneda Airport in Japan, crashes upon takeoff at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Manila. All eight people onboard are killed. (RT)
29 March 2020 – 2020 Malian parliamentary election
After having been postponed several times, parliamentary elections are being held in war-torn Mali. The election is overshadowed by the recent kidnapping of the leading opposition politician Soumaïla Cissé and the first reported COVID-19 death in the country. (DW)
28 March 2020 – 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic in mainland China
2020 Hubei lockdowns
Wuhan, where the coronavirus pandemic first started, starts lifting its two-month lockdown by restarting some metro services and reopening borders to returning residents, though outbound traffic is still restricted until April 8. (Reuters)
28 March 2020 – 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic
2020 coronavirus pandemic in Asia

More current events...

Covid-19-curves-graphic-social-v3.gif

Disease progress

2019–20 coronavirus pandemic by country and territory

Locations[a] Cases[b] Deaths[c] Recov.[d] Ref.
183 678,857 31,776 141,916
United States[e] 124,697 2,227 3,231 [4][6]
Italy[f] 92,472 10,023 12,384 [9]
China (mainland)[g] 81,439 3,300 75,448 [4]
Spain[h] 78,799 6,606 14,709 [11]
Germany 60,147 481 5,024 [12]
Iran[i] 38,309 2,640 12,391 [13]
France[j] 37,611 2,314 5,700 [15][16]
United Kingdom[k] 19,522 1,228 140 [22][23]
Switzerland 14,593 290 1,595 [24]
Netherlands[l] 10,923 772 [26]
Belgium 10,836 431 1,359 [27]
South Korea 9,583 152 5,033 [28][4]
Austria 8,648 86 479 [29][30]
Turkey 7,402 108 70 [31]
Portugal 5,962 119 43 [32]
Canada 5,607 61 479 [33]
Norway[m] 4,239 25 [34]
Australia[n] 3,980 16 226 [37]
Brazil 3,904 111 6 [4][38]
Israel 3,865 13 89 [39]
Sweden[o] 3,719 121 18 [40][41]
Czech Republic 2,716 13 11 [42]
Denmark[p] 2,564 72 [44]
Malaysia 2,470 34 388 [48][49]
Ireland 2,415 36 5 [50]
Chile 2,139 7 75 [51]
Ecuador 1,835 48 3 [52]
Luxembourg 1,831 18 40 [53][30]
Poland 1,771 20 15 [54]
Romania 1,760 40 169 [55][56]
Japan 1,693 52 404 [57][30]
Russia[q] 1,534 8 64 [61]
Pakistan 1,526 13 28 [62]
Philippines 1,418 71 42 [63][64]
Thailand 1,388 7 111 [65][66]
Saudi Arabia 1,299 8 37 [67]
Indonesia 1,285 114 64 [68]
Finland[r] 1,218 9 10 [71][72]
South Africa 1,187 1 31 [73]
Greece 1,061 37 52 [74][75]
India 1,024 27 96 [76]
Iceland 963 2 114 [77]
Panama 901 17 4 [78]
Mexico 848 16 4 [79]
Singapore 844 3 212 [80][81]
Argentina 745 19 51 [82]
Serbia[s] 741 13 42 [84][4]
Slovenia 730 11 10 [85]
Dominican Republic 719 28 3 [86]
Croatia 713 6 52 [87]
Estonia 679 3 20 [88]
Cruise ship side view.svg Diamond Princess[t] 672 10 603 [89]
Peru 671 16 16 [90]
Hong Kong 641 4 118 [91]
Colombia 608 6 10 [92]
Qatar 590 1 45 [93]
Egypt[u] 576 36 121 [94]
Iraq 547 42 143 [95]
Bahrain 499 4 272 [96]
New Zealand 476 1 56 [97]
United Arab Emirates 468 2 55 [98]
Algeria 454 29 31 [4]
Morocco 450 26 13 [4][99]
Lebanon 438 10 30 [100][101]
Lithuania 437 7 1 [102]
Armenia 424 3 30 [103]
Ukraine[v] 418 9 5 [104]
Hungary 408 13 34 [105]
Latvia 347 0 1 [4][106]
Bulgaria 346 8 14 [107]
Andorra 334 6 6 [108]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 323 6 8 [109]
Slovakia 314 0 7 [110][111]
Uruguay 304 1 0 [112][113]
Taiwan 298 2 39 [114][115]
Costa Rica 295 2 3 [116]
Tunisia 278 8 1 [117]
Kazakhstan 271 1 18 [118]
North Macedonia 259 6 3 [119][120]
Kuwait 255 0 67 [121]
Jordan 246 1 18 [122]
Moldova[w] 231 2 11 [124]
San Marino 223 21 6 [125]
Albania 212 10 40 [126]
Azerbaijan 209 4 15 [127]
Burkina Faso 207 11 21 [4]
Vietnam 188 0 25 [128]
Oman 167 0 23 [129]
Cyprus[x] 162 5 15 [130]
Ghana 152 5 2 [131]
Malta 151 0 2 [132]
Senegal 142 0 27 [4]
Ivory Coast 140 0 3 [4]
Uzbekistan 133 2 7 [133]
Brunei 126 1 34 [134]
Afghanistan 120 4 2 [30]
Cuba[y] 119 3 4 [135]
Venezuela 119 2 39 [136]
Sri Lanka 115 1 11 [137]
Cameroon 113 2 2 [138][30]
Honduras 110 2 0 [139]
Mauritius 107 2 0 [140]
Palestine 106 1 18 [141]
Cambodia 103 0 21 [142]
Nigeria 97 1 3 [143]
Belarus 94 0 32 [144]
Georgia 90 0 18 [145][146]
Kosovo 88 1 1 [147]
Montenegro 85 1 0 [148]
Kyrgyzstan 84 0 0 [149]
Bolivia 81 0 0 [150]
Trinidad and Tobago 76 3 1 [151]
DR Congo 65 6 2 [4]
Jersey 63 2 [152]
Liechtenstein 61 0 12 [153]
Northern Cyprus 61 1 29 [154]
Rwanda 60 0 0 [155]
Paraguay 56 3 5 [156]
Bangladesh 48 5 15 [157]
Monaco 43 0 1 [158]
Guernsey 39 0 [159]
Madagascar 39 0 0 [4]
Kenya 38 1 1 [4]
Isle of Man 37 0 0 [160]
Macau 37 0 10 [161]
Guatemala 34 1 10 [162]
Jamaica 30 1 2 [163][4]
Uganda 30 0 0 [164]
Zambia 29 0 0 [4]
Togo 28 1 1 [165]
Barbados 26 0 0 [166]
El Salvador 24 0 0 [167]
Republic of the Congo 19 0 0 [4]
Ethiopia 19 0 1 [4]
Mali 18 1 0 [4]
Niger 18 1 0 [4]
Maldives 17 0 11 [168]
Guinea 16 0 1 [4]
Djibouti 14 0 0 [4]
Tanzania 14 0 0 [4]
Equatorial Guinea 12 0 0 [4]
Mongolia 12 0 0 [4]
Dominica 11 0 0 [169]
Namibia 11 0 2 [4]
Transnistria 11 0 0 [123]
Bahamas 10 0 0 [170]
Eswatini 9 0 0 [171][4]
Grenada 9 0 0 [172]
Guyana 8 1 0 [173]
Haiti 8 0 0 [174]
Laos 8 0 0 [175]
Mozambique 8 0 0 [4]
Myanmar 8 0 0 [176]
Seychelles 8 0 0 [177]
Suriname 8 0 0 [178]
Antigua and Barbuda 7 0 0 [30]
Gabon 7 1 0 [4]
Zimbabwe 7 1 0 [179]
Benin 6 0 0 [30]
Cape Verde 6 1 0 [4]
Eritrea 6 0 0 [4]
Vatican City 6 0 0 [180]
Angola 5 0 0 [4]
Fiji 5 0 0 [181]
Sudan 5 1 0 [182][183]
Mauritania 5 0 0 [4]
Nepal 5 0 1 [184]
Syria 5 0 0 [185]
Bhutan 4 0 0 [186]
Nicaragua 4 1 0 [187]
Central African Republic 3 0 0 [4]
Chad 3 0 0 [188]
Gambia 3 1 0 [189]
Liberia 3 0 0 [4][190]
Libya 3 0 0 [4]
Somalia 3 0 0 [191]
Saint Lucia 3 0 0 [4][192]
Belize 2 0 0 [193]
Guinea-Bissau 2 0 0 [194]
Cruise ship side view.svg MS Zaandam[z] 2 0 0 [195]
Saint Kitts and Nevis 2 0 0 [196]
East Timor 1 0 0 [197]
Papua New Guinea 1 0 0 [198]
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1 0 1 [199][4]
As of 26 March 2020 (UTC) · History of cases: China, international
Notes
  1. ^ Countries and territories, and one international conveyance where cases were diagnosed. Nationality and location of original infection may vary. In some countries, the cases cover several territories, as noted accordingly.
  2. ^ Cumulative confirmed cases reported to date. The actual number of infections and cases are likely to be higher than reported.[1]
  3. ^ Total deaths may not necessarily add up due to the frequency of values updating for each individual location.
  4. ^ Recovered cases. All recoveries may not be reported. Total recoveries may not necessairly add up due to the frequency of values updating for each individual location. "–" denotes that no reliable data is currently available for that territory, not that the value is zero.
  5. ^ United States
    1. Testing has been restricted to at-risk people showing severe symptoms.[2][3]
    2. As of 28 March 2020, includes 151 cases, 3 deaths and 1 recovery in the Overseas Territories:
      as well as cases identified on the Grand Princess
    3. Data is from unofficial trackers and not from the official Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  6. ^ Italy
    Only at-risk people showing symptoms have been tested from 27 February 2020 and onwards.[7][8]
  7. ^ China
    Includes clinically diagnosed cases and deaths from 12 February 2020 and onwards in the province of Hubei.
  8. ^ Spain
    Testing has been restricted to at-risk people showing symptoms.[10]
  9. ^ Iran
    Includes clinically diagnosed cases and deaths from 9 March 2020 and onwards.
  10. ^ France
    Testing has been restricted to at-risk people showing severe symptoms.[14] As of 25 March 2020, includes 272 cases, 2 deaths and 7 recoveries in Overseas departments and regions:
    , as well as 50 cases in Overseas collectivities:
  11. ^ United Kingdom
    As of 26 March 2020, includes 47 cases, 1 death and 5 recoveries in the British Overseas Territories, not counted in the UK government sources:
  12. ^ Netherlands
    1. As of 29 March 2020, includes 57 cases and 1 death in constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Caribbean:
    2. The Dutch Government agency RIVM, responsible for the constituent country the Netherlands, does not count its number of recoveries.[25]
  13. ^ Norway
    1. From 13 March 2020, testing of the normal population was discontinued, and is now only reserved for health professionals and acutely ill people in vulnerable groups.
    2. The Norwegian Institute of Public Health states that there are more infected people in Norway than the figures show. The dark figures are presumed to be higher because of limited testing.[34]
    3. Estimation of number of coronavirus infected:
      • As of 23 March 2020, over 40% of all GPs in Norway have been registered 20,200 patients with the "corona code" R991. The figure includes both cases where the patient has been diagnosed with coronavirus infection through testing, and where the GP has used the "corona code" after assessing the patient's symptoms against the criteria by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.[35]
      • As of 24 March 2020, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health estimates that between 7,120 and 23,140 Norwegians are infected with the coronavirus.[36]
  14. ^ Australia
    Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance". Ten cases, including one fatality recorded by the Australian government.
  15. ^ Sweden
    Testing of suspected infections has been cut back in the whole country in the period around 12 March 2020, in order to focus efforts on people with increased risk of serious illness and complications.
  16. ^ Denmark
    1. As of 28 March 2020, includes 169 cases in constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark:
    2. The Danish Government does not report the number of recoveries.[46]
    3. From 12 March 2020, the criteria for testing has been changed; only people with more serious symptoms and health professionals are being tested.[47]
  17. ^ Russia
    Including cases from the disputed Crimea, which was annexed by Russia in 2014 but remains internationally recognized as being under Ukrainian sovereignty. Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance". One fatality was not officially recorded by the Russian authorities as caused by coronavirus.[58][59][60]
  18. ^ Finland
    1. As of 25 March 2020, includes 5 cases in the autonomous region of Åland Islands.[69]
    2. Testing is limited to severely ill or at-risk patients and social or health care workers.[70]
  19. ^ Serbia
    Excluding Kosovo.[83]
  20. ^ Diamond Princess
    The British cruise ship Diamond Princess was in Japanese waters, and Japanese administration was asked to manage its quarantine, with the passengers having not entered Japan. Therefore, this case is neither included in the Japanese government's official count nor in United Kingdom's one. The World Health Organization classifies the cases as being located "on an international conveyance".
  21. ^ Egypt
    Includes cases identified on the MS River Anuket.
  22. ^ Ukraine
    Excluding cases from the disputed Crimea, which was annexed by Russia in 2014 but remains internationally recognized as being under Ukrainian sovereignty. Because the Russian authorities are tabulating cases from Crimea, they are included in the Russian total.
  23. ^ Moldova
    Excludes data from the unrecognised state of Transnistria.[123]
  24. ^ Cyprus
    Excluding Northern Cyprus.
  25. ^ Cuba
    Includes cases on the MS Braemar.
  26. ^ MS Zaandam
    The cruise ship MS Zaandam was near Panamanian waters, with the intention of transiting the Panama Canal to make its way to Florida. But the Panamanian government has denied it access to the canal for "sanitary reasons" and has not counted it on their national figures.
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About the virus

Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.jpg

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously known by the provisional name 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. It is contagious in humans and is the cause of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has been designated a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO).

SARS-CoV-2 has close genetic similarity to bat coronaviruses, suggesting it emerged from a bat-borne virus. An intermediate animal reservoir such as a pangolin is also thought to be involved in its introduction to humans. From a taxonomic perspective, SARS-CoV-2 is classified as a strain of the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV). Read more...

About viruses

A virus is a tiny infectious agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts. When infected, the host cell is forced to rapidly produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus. Unlike most living things, viruses do not have cells that divide; new viruses assemble in the infected host cell. But unlike simpler infectious agents like prions, they contain genes, which allow them to mutate and evolve. Over 4,800 species of viruses have been described in detail out of the millions in the environment. Their origin is unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria.

Viruses are made of either two or three parts. All include genes. These genes contain the encoded biological information of the virus and are built from either DNA or RNA. All viruses are also covered with a protein coat to protect the genes. Some viruses may also have an envelope of fat-like substance that covers the protein coat, and makes them vulnerable to soap. A virus with this "viral envelope" uses it—along with specific receptors—to enter a new host cell. Viruses vary in shape from the simple helical and icosahedral to more complex structures. Viruses range in size from 20 to 300 nanometres; it would take 33,000 to 500,000 of them, side by side, to stretch to 1 centimetre (0.4 in).

Viruses spread in many ways. Although many are very specific about which host species or tissue they attack, each species of virus relies on a particular method to copy itself. Plant viruses are often spread from plant to plant by insects and other organisms, known as vectors. Some viruses of humans and other animals are spread by exposure to infected bodily fluids. Viruses such as influenza are spread through the air by droplets of moisture when people cough or sneeze. Viruses such as norovirus are transmitted by the faecal–oral route, which involves the contamination of hands, food and water. Rotavirus is often spread by direct contact with infected children. The human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, is transmitted by bodily fluids transferred during sex. Others, such as the dengue virus, are spread by blood-sucking insects. Read more...

Young polio victims receiving physiotherapy in the 1950s

The social history of viruses describes the influence of viruses and viral infections on human history. Epidemics caused by viruses began when human behaviour changed during the Neolithic period, around 12,000 years ago, when humans developed more densely populated agricultural communities. This allowed viruses to spread rapidly and subsequently to become endemic. Viruses of plants and livestock also increased, and as humans became dependent on agriculture and farming, diseases such as potyviruses of potatoes and rinderpest of cattle had devastating consequences.

Smallpox and measles viruses are among the oldest that infect humans. Having evolved from viruses that infected other animals, they first appeared in humans in Europe and North Africa thousands of years ago. The viruses were later carried to the New World by Europeans during the time of the Spanish Conquests, but the indigenous people had no natural resistance to the viruses and millions of them died during epidemics. Influenza pandemics have been recorded since 1580, and they have occurred with increasing frequency in subsequent centuries. The pandemic of 1918–19, in which 40–50 million died in less than a year, was one of the most devastating in history. Read more...

Socio-economic impact

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has had far-reaching consequences beyond the spread of the disease and efforts to quarantine it. As the pandemic has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector.

Economics

Economic turmoil associated with the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has wide-ranging and severe impacts upon financial markets, including stock, bond, and commodity (including crude oil and gold) markets. Major events included a described Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war after failing to reach an OPEC+ agreement that resulted in a collapse of crude oil prices and a stock market crash in March 2020. The effects upon markets are among the many socio-economic impacts of the pandemic.

Stock market crash (2020).svg

The 2020 stock market crash is a global stock market crash that began on 20 February, 2020. On 12 February, the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the NASDAQ Composite, and S&P 500 Index all finished at record highs (while the NASDAQ and S&P 500 reached subsequent record highs on 19 February). From 24 to 28 February, stock markets worldwide reported their largest one-week declines since the 2008 financial crisis, thus entering a correction. Global markets into early March became extremely volatile, with large swings occurring in global markets. On 9 March, most global markets reported severe contractions, mainly in response to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic and an oil price war between Russia and the OPEC countries led by Saudi Arabia. This became colloquially known as Black Monday I, and at the time was the worst drop since the Great Recession in 2008.

On 8 March 2020, Saudi Arabia initiated a price war with Russia, triggering a major fall in the price of oil, with US oil prices falling by 34%, crude oil falling by 26%, and brent oil falling by 24%. The price war was triggered by a breakup in dialogue between the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and Russia over proposed oil production cuts in the midst of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Oil prices had already fallen 30% since the start of the year due to a drop in demand. The price war is one of the major causes of the currently ongoing global stock market crash.

Sports

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has caused the most significant disruption to the worldwide sporting calendar since World War II. Across the world and to varying degrees, sports events have been cancelled or postponed.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has impacted the 2020 Summer Olympics. Many qualifying matches have been cancelled or postponed. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced on 24 March that the Games will be postponed until 2021.

Xenophobia and racism

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, which started in the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December 2019, has initially led to increased prejudice, xenophobia, discrimination, violence and racism against Chinese people and people of East Asian and Southeast Asian descent and appearance around the world, as well as discriminatory acts by Hong Kong Chinese against mainland Chinese, and by mainland Chinese against their compatriots from Hubei province, more specifically, from the city of Wuhan.

Culture

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has had a significant impact on aviation industry due to the resulting travel restrictions as well as slump in demand among travelers. Significant reductions in passenger numbers has resulted in planes flying empty between airports and the cancellation of flights.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has had a substantial impact on the film industry. Across the world and to varying degrees, cinemas and movie theaters have been closed, festivals have been cancelled or postponed, and film releases have been moved to future dates or delayed indefinitely. As cinemas and movie theaters closed, the global box office dropped by billions of dollars, streaming became more popular, and the stock of film exhibitors dropped dramatically. Many blockbusters originally scheduled to be released between March and August were postponed or canceled around the world, with film productions also halted.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has shut down or delayed production of television programs in several countries.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has impacted religion in various ways, including the cancellation of the worship services of various faiths, the closure of Sunday Schools, as well as the cancellation of pilgrimages surrounding observances and festivals. Many churches, synagogues, mosques, and temples have offered worship through livestream amidst the pandemic. Relief wings of religious organisations have dispatched disinfection supplies, powered air purifying respirators, face shields, gloves, coronavirus nucleic acid detection reagents, ventilators, patient monitors, syringe pumps, infusion pumps, and food to affected areas. Other churches have offered free COVID-19 testing to the public. Adherents of many religions have gathered together to pray for an end to the COVID-19 pandemic, for those affected by it, as well as for wisdom for physicians and scientists to combat the disease. In the United States, President Donald Trump designated 15 March 2020 as a National Day of Prayer for "God’s healing hand to be placed on the people of our Nation".

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has caused many events around the world to be cancelled or postponed. Among the most prominent events to be affected was the 2020 Summer Olympics which has been postponed to 2021.

Politics and education

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic affected the political systems of multiple countries causing suspensions of legislative activities, isolation or deaths of multiple politicians, and rescheduling of elections due to fears of spreading the virus.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has affected educational systems worldwide, leading to the widespread closures of schools and universities.

Topics

Get involved!

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