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Portal:COVID-19

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The COVID-19 portal

SARS-CoV-2 as seen by a cryo-electron tomography scan.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic.

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmissions. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures. (Full article...)

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About the virus

This colorized transmission electron microscope image shows SARS-CoV-2—also known as 2019-nCoV, the virus that causes COVID-19—isolated from a patient in the U.S.

SARS‑CoV‑2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.

Like the SARS-related coronavirus implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS‑CoV‑2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). Coronaviruses undergo frequent recombination. The mechanism of recombination in unsegmented RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 is generally by copy-choice replication, in which gene material switches from one RNA template molecule to another during replication. SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length, relatively long for a coronavirus (which in turn carry the largest genomes among all RNA families) Its genome consists nearly entirely of protein-coding sequences, a trait shared with other coronaviruses. (Full article...)

About the symptoms and spread

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Common symptoms include headache, loss of smell and taste, nasal congestion and runny nose, cough, muscle pain, sore throat, fever, diarrhea, and breathing difficulties. People with the same infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of cases

As is common with infections, there is a delay between the moment a person first becomes infected and the appearance of the first symptoms. The median delay for COVID-19 is four to five days. Most symptomatic people experience symptoms within two to seven days after exposure, and almost all will experience at least one symptom within 12 days. (Full article...)

The disease is mainly transmitted via the respiratory route when people inhale droplets and small airborne particles (that form an aerosol) that infected people breath out as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing. Infected people are more likely to transmit COVID-19 when they are physically close. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors. 2). (Full article...)

Disease progress

Cases
241,132,266
Deaths
4,905,094

Location Cases Deaths
World[a] 241,132,266 4,905,094
United States United States 45,050,910 725,835
European Union European Union[b] 38,968,302 784,449
India India 34,094,373 452,454
Brazil Brazil 21,651,910 603,465
United Kingdom United Kingdom 8,537,650 139,042
Russia Russia 7,903,963 220,323
Turkey Turkey 7,683,487 67,837
France France 7,190,716 118,232
Iran Iran 5,796,659 124,256
Argentina Argentina 5,273,463 115,704
Spain Spain 4,988,878 87,030
Colombia Colombia 4,982,575 126,886
Italy Italy 4,719,493 131,585
Germany Germany 4,388,581 94,720
Indonesia Indonesia 4,235,384 142,999
Mexico Mexico 3,758,469 284,477
Poland Poland 2,941,126 76,115
South Africa South Africa 2,916,803 88,619
Ukraine Ukraine 2,767,743 64,797
Philippines Philippines 2,727,286 40,761
Malaysia Malaysia 2,396,121 27,993
Peru Peru 2,190,396 199,882
Netherlands Netherlands 2,090,522 18,684
Iraq Iraq 2,037,012 22,785
Thailand Thailand 1,793,812 18,336
Japan Japan 1,715,745 18,129
Czech Republic Czechia 1,709,716 30,554
Canada Canada 1,693,364 28,616
Chile Chile 1,672,065 37,620
Bangladesh Bangladesh 1,565,827 27,778
Romania Romania 1,467,401 42,042
Israel Israel 1,317,758 8,010
Belgium Belgium 1,289,033 25,780
Pakistan Pakistan 1,265,650 28,300
Sweden Sweden 1,161,933 14,956
Portugal Portugal 1,080,097 18,100
Serbia Serbia 1,055,296 9,157
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 997,537 16,713
Morocco Morocco 942,280 14,561
Cuba Cuba 936,809 8,079
Vietnam Vietnam 867,221 21,269
Switzerland Switzerland 856,957 11,162
Jordan Jordan 843,204 10,887
Hungary Hungary 836,389 30,402
Nepal Nepal 805,560 11,293
Austria Austria 777,679 11,180
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 738,690 2,120
Tunisia Tunisia 710,953 25,100
Greece Greece 697,033 15,418
Georgia (country) Georgia 664,813 9,510
Lebanon Lebanon 634,209 8,430
Guatemala Guatemala 588,262 14,387
Belarus Belarus 573,943 4,417
Costa Rica Costa Rica 552,953 6,857
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 547,969 8,765
Bulgaria Bulgaria 545,598 22,488
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 532,218 13,507
Ecuador Ecuador 513,026 32,899
Bolivia Bolivia 507,134 18,834
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 503,452 6,778
Myanmar Myanmar 488,875 18,388
Panama Panama 470,395 7,294
Paraguay Paraguay 460,553 16,228
State of Palestine Palestine 448,322 4,585
Slovakia Slovakia 437,938 12,854
Croatia Croatia 428,233 8,907
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 416,690 5,306
Kuwait Kuwait 412,371 2,458
Venezuela Venezuela 394,061 4,734
Uruguay Uruguay 391,167 6,069
Honduras Honduras 372,179 10,096
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 371,447 4,090
Denmark Denmark 371,407 2,690
Lithuania Lithuania 370,119 5,456
Ethiopia Ethiopia 359,495 6,238
Libya Libya 350,628 4,904
South Korea South Korea 344,518 2,689
Mongolia Mongolia 340,839 1,574
Egypt Egypt 319,339 18,015
Moldova Moldova 317,899 7,273
Slovenia Slovenia 308,501 4,641
Oman Oman 304,066 4,106
Armenia Armenia 283,183 5,805
Bahrain Bahrain 276,188 1,391
Kenya Kenya 252,066 5,224
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 245,082 11,201
Qatar Qatar 237,996 608
Zambia Zambia 209,536 3,658
Nigeria Nigeria 209,387 2,838
Algeria Algeria 205,364 5,873
North Macedonia North Macedonia 197,197 6,964
Norway Norway 196,896 884
Latvia Latvia 186,869 2,897
Botswana Botswana 184,051 2,389
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 181,312 1,290
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 179,913 2,636
Albania Albania 178,188 2,829
Estonia Estonia 173,335 1,429
Kosovo Kosovo 160,541 2,973
Afghanistan Afghanistan 155,776 7,246
Finland Finland 151,207 1,120
Mozambique Mozambique 151,112 1,927
Singapore Singapore 150,731 239
Australia Australia 147,301 1,558
Montenegro Montenegro 138,047 2,036
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 132,368 4,658
Ghana Ghana 129,440 1,167
Namibia Namibia 128,353 3,540
Uganda Uganda 125,261 3,185
Cyprus Cyprus 122,362 565
Cambodia Cambodia 116,860 2,670
El Salvador El Salvador 110,188 3,490
Rwanda Rwanda 99,181 1,313
Cameroon Cameroon 98,402 1,550
China China[c] 96,648 4,636
Jamaica Jamaica 87,586 2,117
Maldives Maldives 86,211 238
Luxembourg Luxembourg 79,982 839
Senegal Senegal 73,873 1,871
Angola Angola 63,012 1,670
Malawi Malawi 61,726 2,294
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 61,072 685
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 57,338 1,091
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 54,267 1,605
Fiji Fiji 51,846 663
Suriname Suriname 46,996 1,029
Eswatini Eswatini 46,371 1,235
Madagascar Madagascar 43,616 960
Sudan Sudan 39,839 3,038
Syria Syria 39,488 2,429
Cape Verde Cabo Verde 38,049 347
Malta Malta 37,464 459
Mauritania Mauritania 36,722 789
Guyana Guyana 34,514 875
Gabon Gabon 33,842 218
Laos Laos 32,314 40
Guinea Guinea 30,572 385
Tanzania Tanzania 26,034 724
Togo Togo 25,903 239
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 24,857 309
Benin Benin 24,560 161
Belize Belize 24,447 465
Haiti Haiti 23,042 657
The Bahamas Bahamas 21,978 626
Seychelles Seychelles 21,947 119
Lesotho Lesotho 21,530 655
Somalia Somalia 21,269 1,180
Burundi Burundi 19,730 38
East Timor Timor-Leste 19,725 119
Tajikistan Tajikistan 17,484 125
Mauritius Mauritius 16,669 134
Taiwan Taiwan 16,337 846
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 15,962 231
Nicaragua Nicaragua 15,737 206
Mali Mali 15,643 557
Andorra Andorra 15,367 130
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 14,752 203
Djibouti Djibouti 13,415 181
Barbados Barbados 13,171 119
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 13,020 161
Iceland Iceland 12,614 33
Hong Kong Hong Kong 12,299 213
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 12,234 237
South Sudan South Sudan 12,225 130
Central African Republic Central African Republic 11,478 100
Brunei Brunei 11,047 76
The Gambia Gambia 9,946 339
Yemen Yemen 9,556 1,807
Eritrea Eritrea 6,776 45
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 6,397 121
Niger Niger 6,177 205
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 6,130 141
Liberia Liberia 5,807 286
Grenada Grenada 5,769 193
San Marino San Marino 5,475 91
New Zealand New Zealand 5,154 28
Chad Chad 5,069 174
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4,627 53
Comoros Comoros 4,190 147
Dominica Dominica 4,153 28
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 3,918 95
São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe 3,677 56
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 3,589 60
Monaco Monaco 3,363 35
Bhutan Bhutan 2,617 3
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 2,556 21
Vatican City Vatican City 27 0
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 20
Palau Palau 8 0
Vanuatu Vanuatu 4 1
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 4
Samoa Samoa 3
Kiribati Kiribati 2
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 1 0
  1. ^ Countries which do not report data for a column are not included in that column's world total.
  2. ^ Data on member states of the European Union are individually listed, but are also summed here for convenience. They are not double-counted in world totals.
  3. ^ Does not include special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau) or Taiwan.

National responses

Due to the pandemic in Europe, many countries in the Schengen Area have restricted free movement and set up border controls. National reactions have included containment measures such as quarantines and curfews (known as stay-at-home orders, shelter-in-place orders, or lockdowns). The WHO's recommendation on curfews and lockdowns is that they should be short-term measures to reorganise, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect health workers who are exhausted. To achieve a balance between restrictions and normal life, the long-term responses to the pandemic should consist of strict personal hygiene, effective contact tracing, and isolating when ill.

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Recent news

19 October 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in Bulgaria
Bulgaria launches its COVID-19 Green Certificate which indicates that a person is either vaccinated, has tested negative, or has recovered from COVID-19. The certificate will be mandatory for all indoor activities beginning on October 21. (Novinite)
COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand
New Zealand reports a record 94 new cases of COVID-19 in the past 24 hours. (The Guardian)
COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore
Singapore reports a record 3,994 new cases of COVID-19 in the past 24 hours, thereby bringing the nationwide total of confirmed cases to 154,725. (Today)

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Data maps

Economic impact

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching economic consequences beyond the spread of the disease itself and efforts to quarantine it. As the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector. The pandemic caused the 2nd largest global recession in history, with more than a third of the global population at the time being placed on lockdown.

Global stock markets fell on 24 February 2020 due to a significant rise in the number of COVID-19 cases outside mainland China. By 28 February 2020, stock markets worldwide realized their largest single-week declines since the financial crisis of 2007–2008. This culminated in the 2020 stock market crash. (Full article...)

Workplace

An inverted triangle consisting of five colored horizontal levels, each containing one tee five hazard control methods: elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment
The hierarchy of hazard controls contains methods for controlling exposures to hazards. Methods listed towards the top potentially more effective than those at the bottom at reducing the risk of illness or injury.[2]

Hazard controls for COVID-19 in workplaces are the application of occupational safety and health methodologies for hazard controls to the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against severe illness or death from COVID-19. Multiple layers of controls are recommended, including measures such as telework and flexible schedules, increased ventilation, personal protective equipment (PPE) and face coverings, physical distancing, and enhanced cleaning programs. (Full article...)

Misinformation

COVID-19 misinformation refers to any kind of subject about the COVID-19 pandemic that has resulted in misinformation and conspiracy theories about the scale of the pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. False information, including intentional disinformation, has been spread through social media, text messaging, and mass media. False information has been propagated by celebrities, politicians, and other prominent public figures. Multiple countries have passed laws against "fake news", and thousands of people have been arrested for spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The spread of COVID-19 misinformation by governments has also been significant. (Full article...)

Testing

COVID-19 testing involves analyzing samples to assess the current or past presence of SARS-CoV-2. The two main branches detect either the presence of the virus or of antibodies produced in response to infection. Molecular tests for viral presence through its molecular components are used to diagnose individual cases and to allow public health authorities to trace and contain outbreaks. Antibody tests (serology immunoassays) instead show whether someone once had the disease. They are less useful for diagnosing current infections because antibodies may not develop for weeks after infection. It is used to assess disease prevalence, which aids the estimation of the infection fatality rate. (Full article...)

Vaccine research

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Prior to the COVID‑19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020. The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness. On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID-19. The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the spread, severity, and death caused by COVID-19. (Full article...)

Drug research

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop preventative therapeutic prescription drugs that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From early 2020 through 2021, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing therapeutic candidates for COVID-19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research (506 total candidates in April 2021), with 419 potential COVID-19 drugs in clinical trials, as of April 2021. (Full article...)

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Get involved by joining WikiProject COVID-19. We discuss collaborations and all manner of issues on our talk page. As of 20 October 2021, there are 2,087 articles within the project's scope. A full list is available here.

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References

  1. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2021). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2021-10-19.
  2. ^ "Hierarchy of Controls". U.S. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 2017-03-05.

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