COVID-19 spreads most often when people are physically close.[a] It spreads very easily and sustainably through the air, primarily via small droplets or aerosols, as an infected person breathes, coughs, sneezes, sings, or speaks. It may also be transmitted via contaminated surfaces, although this has not been conclusively demonstrated.Airborne transmission from aerosol formation is suspected to be the main mode of transmission. It can spread from an infected person for up to two days before they display symptoms, and from people who are asymptomatic. People remain infectious for seven to twelve days in moderate cases, and up to two weeks in severe cases.
^Known as "close contact" which is variously defined, including within ~1.8 metres (six feet) by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and being face to face for a cumulative total of 15 minutes, or sharing an enclosed space for a prolonged period such as two hours, by the Australian Health Department.
^Location: Countries, territories, and international conveyances where cases were diagnosed. The nationality of the infected and the origin of infection may vary. For some countries, cases are split into respective territories and noted accordingly.
^Cases: This number shows the cumulative number of confirmed human cases reported to date. The actual number of infections and cases is likely to be higher than reported. Reporting criteria and testing capacity vary between locations.
^Deaths: Reporting criteria vary between locations.
^Recoveries: May not correspond to actual current figures and not all recoveries may be reported. Reporting criteria vary between locations and some countries do not report recoveries.
^The worldwide totals for cases, deaths and recoveries are taken from the Johns Hopkins University Coronavirus Resource Center. They are not sums of the figures for the listed countries and territories.
Not all states or overseas territories report recovery data.
Cases include clinically diagnosed cases as per CDC guidelines.
Recoveries and deaths include probable deaths and people released from quarantine as per CDC guidelines.
Figures from the United States Department of Defense are only released on a branch-by branch basis since April 2020, without distinction between domestic and foreign deployment, and cases may be reported to local health authorities.
Cases for the USS Theodore Roosevelt, currently docked at Guam, are reported separate from national figures but included in the Navy's totals.
The Chilean Ministry of Health considered all cases as "recovered" after 14 days since the initial symptoms of the virus, no matter the health situation of the infected or if following tests indicate the continuing presence of the virus. The only exception were casualties, which are not included as recovered.
Deaths only include cases with positive PCR tests and catalogued as "COVID-19 related death" by the Civil Registry and Identification Service. This number is informed on the daily reports of the Ministry of Health. A report with the total number of deaths, including suspected cases without PCR test, is released weekly since 20 June 2020. In the latest report (16 October 2020), the number of total deaths is 18,248.
On 17 July 2020, Quebec, Canada, revised its criteria on recoveries. The Institut national de santé publique claims that "the previous method resulted in 'significant underestimations' of recovered cases." This change resulted in a drop of active cases nationwide, from a total of 27,603 on 16 July to 4,058 on 17 July.
The British cruise ship Diamond Princess was in Japanese waters, and the Japanese administration was asked to manage its quarantine, with the passengers having not entered Japan. Therefore, this case is included in neither the Japanese nor British official counts. The World Health Organization classifies the cases as being located "on an international conveyance".
As of 23 March 2020, according to figures from just over 40 per cent of all GPs in Norway, 20,200 patients have been registered with the "corona code" R991. The figure includes both cases where the patient has been diagnosed with coronavirus infection through testing, and where the GP has used the "corona code" after assessing the patient's symptoms against the criteria by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
As of 24 March 2020, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health estimates that between 7,120 and 23,140 Norwegians are infected with the coronavirus.
The number of recoveries is an estimate based on reported cases which were reported at least two weeks ago and there is no other monitoring data on the course of the disease. The exact number of recoveries is not known, as only a small proportion of patients have been hospitalized.
1,345 people who tested positive have been voluntarily repatriated to their respective countries and are not part of the confirmed case count as a result the Government of Botswana does not include the transferred-out cases.
Recoveries are presumed. Defined as "An individual testing positive for coronavirus who completes the 14 day self-isolation period from the onset of symptoms who is at home on day 15, or an individual who is discharged from hospital following more severe symptoms."
The total number of worldwide confirmed COVID-19 cases surpasses 40 million. The United States remains the global leader in case numbers, accounting for 20% of all cumulative cases, with India closely following at 19%. (The Guardian)
Movement of the DJIA between January 2017 and March 2020, showing the all-time high on 12 February, and the subsequent crash.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching consequences beyond the spread of the disease itself and efforts to quarantine it. As the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector. The pandemic caused the largest global recession in history, with more than a third of the global population at the time being placed on lockdown.
COVID-19 testing involves analyzing samples to assess the current or past presence of SARS-CoV-2. The two main branches detect either the presence of the virus or of antibodies produced in response to infection. Tests for viral presence are used to diagnose individual cases and to allow public health authorities to trace and contain outbreaks. Antibody tests instead show whether someone once had the disease. They are less useful for diagnosing current infections because antibodies may not develop for weeks after infection. It is used to assess disease prevalence, which aids the estimation of the infection fatality rate. Read more...
Previous work to develop a vaccine against SARS and MERS established knowledge about the structure and function of coronaviruses – which accelerated development during early 2020 of varied technology platforms for a COVID‑19 vaccine. As of October 2020, there were 321 vaccine candidates in development, a 2.5 fold increase since April. However, no candidate has completed vaccine trials to prove its safety and efficacy. In October, some 44 vaccine candidates were in clinical research: namely 34 in Phase I–II trials and 10 in Phase II–III trials. Read more...
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