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Portal:COVID-19

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The COVID-19 portal

SARS-CoV-2 as seen by a cryo-electron tomography scan.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic.

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmissions. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures. (Full article...)

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About the virus

This colorized transmission electron microscope image shows SARS-CoV-2—also known as 2019-nCoV, the virus that causes COVID-19—isolated from a patient in the U.S.

SARS‑CoV‑2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.

Like the SARS-related coronavirus implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS‑CoV‑2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). Coronaviruses undergo frequent recombination. The mechanism of recombination in unsegmented RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 is generally by copy-choice replication, in which gene material switches from one RNA template molecule to another during replication. SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length, relatively long for a coronavirus (which in turn carry the largest genomes among all RNA families) Its genome consists nearly entirely of protein-coding sequences, a trait shared with other coronaviruses. (Full article...)

About the symptoms and spread

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Common symptoms include headache, loss of smell and taste, nasal congestion and runny nose, cough, muscle pain, sore throat, fever, diarrhea, and breathing difficulties. People with the same infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of cases

As is common with infections, there is a delay between the moment a person first becomes infected and the appearance of the first symptoms. The median delay for COVID-19 is four to five days. Most symptomatic people experience symptoms within two to seven days after exposure, and almost all will experience at least one symptom within 12 days. (Full article...)

The disease is mainly transmitted via the respiratory route when people inhale droplets and small airborne particles (that form an aerosol) that infected people breath out as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing. Infected people are more likely to transmit COVID-19 when they are physically close. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors. 2). (Full article...)

Disease progress

Cases
242,987,401
Deaths
4,938,251

Location Cases Deaths
World[a] 242,987,401 4,938,251
United States United States 45,400,466 735,373
European Union European Union[b] 39,371,457 788,718
India India 34,159,562 453,708
Brazil Brazil 21,711,843 605,139
United Kingdom United Kingdom 8,730,787 139,743
Russia Russia 8,041,581 224,369
Turkey Turkey 7,800,766 68,700
France France 7,215,584 118,373
Iran Iran 5,844,589 124,928
Argentina Argentina 5,278,910 115,819
Spain Spain 4,997,732 87,132
Colombia Colombia 4,988,021 126,994
Italy Italy 4,733,557 131,763
Germany Germany 4,462,324 95,081
Indonesia Indonesia 4,238,594 143,153
Mexico Mexico 3,777,209 285,953
Poland Poland 2,961,923 76,359
South Africa South Africa 2,918,883 88,891
Ukraine Ukraine 2,852,109 67,087
Philippines Philippines 2,745,889 41,520
Malaysia Malaysia 2,420,222 28,312
Peru Peru 2,194,132 200,003
Netherlands Netherlands 2,110,236 18,727
Iraq Iraq 2,043,963 22,901
Thailand Thailand 1,831,389 18,625
Czech Republic Czechia 1,722,446 30,593
Japan Japan 1,717,177 18,194
Canada Canada 1,704,019 28,782
Chile Chile 1,678,023 37,651
Bangladesh Bangladesh 1,567,139 27,805
Romania Romania 1,534,942 43,844
Israel Israel 1,321,894 8,039
Belgium Belgium 1,312,360 25,846
Pakistan Pakistan 1,267,945 28,359
Sweden Sweden 1,165,996 14,993
Serbia Serbia 1,085,728 9,388
Portugal Portugal 1,083,651 18,125
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1,005,130 16,871
Morocco Morocco 943,652 14,600
Cuba Cuba 943,038 8,153
Vietnam Vietnam 881,522 21,543
Switzerland Switzerland 862,411 11,182
Jordan Jordan 849,000 10,930
Hungary Hungary 843,825 30,492
Nepal Nepal 808,096 11,337
Austria Austria 791,226 11,233
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 739,106 2,128
Tunisia Tunisia 711,397 25,132
Greece Greece 711,128 15,555
Georgia (country) Georgia 684,337 9,657
Lebanon Lebanon 636,685 8,445
Guatemala Guatemala 593,459 14,615
Belarus Belarus 582,111 4,482
Bulgaria Bulgaria 564,719 22,975
Costa Rica Costa Rica 555,970 6,946
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 548,162 8,774
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 534,975 13,574
Ecuador Ecuador 514,087 32,937
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 511,974 6,847
Bolivia Bolivia 509,276 18,896
Myanmar Myanmar 492,509 18,491
Panama Panama 471,253 7,306
Paraguay Paraguay 460,679 16,229
State of Palestine Palestine 450,310 4,611
Slovakia Slovakia 449,775 12,886
Croatia Croatia 439,447 8,985
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 425,725 5,369
Kuwait Kuwait 412,481 2,460
Venezuela Venezuela 397,370 4,775
Uruguay Uruguay 391,890 6,070
Lithuania Lithuania 382,454 5,571
Denmark Denmark 375,982 2,698
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 374,722 4,100
Honduras Honduras 373,704 10,172
Ethiopia Ethiopia 361,647 6,333
Libya Libya 352,881 4,982
South Korea South Korea 350,476 2,745
Mongolia Mongolia 348,188 1,643
Moldova Moldova 325,526 7,424
Egypt Egypt 322,852 18,195
Slovenia Slovenia 316,138 4,669
Oman Oman 304,116 4,107
Armenia Armenia 291,052 5,944
Bahrain Bahrain 276,461 1,393
Kenya Kenya 252,499 5,249
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 247,958 11,322
Qatar Qatar 238,359 608
Nigeria Nigeria 210,136 2,855
Zambia Zambia 209,610 3,658
Algeria Algeria 205,683 5,883
Norway Norway 199,550 894
North Macedonia North Macedonia 199,057 7,019
Latvia Latvia 197,389 2,992
Botswana Botswana 184,919 2,396
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 182,819 1,300
Albania Albania 180,623 2,863
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 180,348 2,647
Estonia Estonia 178,610 1,449
Singapore Singapore 165,663 294
Kosovo Kosovo 160,606 2,974
Australia Australia 156,401 1,622
Afghanistan Afghanistan 155,931 7,252
Finland Finland 153,156 1,139
Mozambique Mozambique 151,195 1,927
Montenegro Montenegro 139,963 2,057
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 132,588 4,663
Ghana Ghana 129,592 1,169
Namibia Namibia 128,444 3,545
Uganda Uganda 125,537 3,194
Cyprus Cyprus 122,996 568
Cambodia Cambodia 117,500 2,715
El Salvador El Salvador 112,290 3,544
Cameroon Cameroon 100,289 1,600
Rwanda Rwanda 99,325 1,318
China China[c] 96,792 4,636
Jamaica Jamaica 87,970 2,153
Maldives Maldives 86,605 240
Luxembourg Luxembourg 80,603 842
Senegal Senegal 73,880 1,876
Angola Angola 63,691 1,693
Malawi Malawi 61,747 2,296
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 61,152 689
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 57,432 1,091
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 55,203 1,633
Fiji Fiji 51,977 673
Suriname Suriname 47,875 1,054
Eswatini Eswatini 46,383 1,239
Madagascar Madagascar 43,622 960
Syria Syria 40,922 2,478
Sudan Sudan 40,084 3,038
Cape Verde Cabo Verde 38,098 347
Malta Malta 37,533 459
Mauritania Mauritania 36,866 791
Guyana Guyana 34,877 893
Gabon Gabon 34,601 224
Laos Laos 34,518 49
Guinea Guinea 30,626 385
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 26,731 329
Tanzania Tanzania 26,034 724
Togo Togo 25,967 240
Belize Belize 25,445 473
Benin Benin 24,560 161
Haiti Haiti 23,406 658
The Bahamas Bahamas 22,179 642
Seychelles Seychelles 22,102 119
Lesotho Lesotho 21,575 656
Somalia Somalia 21,269 1,180
Burundi Burundi 19,894 38
East Timor Timor-Leste 19,759 120
Tajikistan Tajikistan 17,486 125
Mauritius Mauritius 17,047 148
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 16,408 239
Taiwan Taiwan 16,357 846
Nicaragua Nicaragua 16,241 207
Mali Mali 15,776 558
Andorra Andorra 15,404 130
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 14,793 214
Barbados Barbados 14,753 126
Djibouti Djibouti 13,436 181
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 13,097 163
Iceland Iceland 12,899 33
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 12,385 239
Hong Kong Hong Kong 12,313 213
South Sudan South Sudan 12,279 133
Brunei Brunei 11,672 79
Central African Republic Central African Republic 11,518 100
The Gambia Gambia 9,956 339
Yemen Yemen 9,650 1,835
Eritrea Eritrea 6,788 45
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 6,397 121
Niger Niger 6,236 206
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 6,131 141
Liberia Liberia 5,811 287
Grenada Grenada 5,809 196
New Zealand New Zealand 5,555 28
San Marino San Marino 5,497 91
Chad Chad 5,069 174
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4,814 60
Dominica Dominica 4,508 30
Comoros Comoros 4,200 147
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 3,994 97
São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe 3,691 56
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 3,623 60
Monaco Monaco 3,388 35
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 2,619 21
Bhutan Bhutan 2,617 3
Vatican City Vatican City 27 0
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 20
Palau Palau 8 0
Vanuatu Vanuatu 4 1
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 4
Samoa Samoa 3
Kiribati Kiribati 2
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 1 0
  1. ^ Countries which do not report data for a column are not included in that column's world total.
  2. ^ Data on member states of the European Union are individually listed, but are also summed here for convenience. They are not double-counted in world totals.
  3. ^ Does not include special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau) or Taiwan.

National responses

Due to the pandemic in Europe, many countries in the Schengen Area have restricted free movement and set up border controls. National reactions have included containment measures such as quarantines and curfews (known as stay-at-home orders, shelter-in-place orders, or lockdowns). The WHO's recommendation on curfews and lockdowns is that they should be short-term measures to reorganise, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect health workers who are exhausted. To achieve a balance between restrictions and normal life, the long-term responses to the pandemic should consist of strict personal hygiene, effective contact tracing, and isolating when ill.

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Recent news

23 October 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in Namibia
Namibia suspends the usage of the Russian made Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine amid reports from South Africa that the vaccine carries a risk of causing HIV infections in men. (WION)
COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand
The South Island reports its first community case of COVID-19 since November 2020 in a man who travelled from Rotorua to Blenheim on October 21. (Stuff)
COVID-19 pandemic in Russia
Russia reports a record for the fifth consecutive day of 1,075 deaths from COVID-19, thereby bringing the nationwide death toll to 229,528. The country also reports a record for the third consecutive day of 37,678 new cases of COVID-19, thereby bringing the nationwide total of confirmed cases to 8.2 million. (ANI News)

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Economic impact

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching economic consequences beyond the spread of the disease itself and efforts to quarantine it. As the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector. The pandemic caused the 2nd largest global recession in history, with more than a third of the global population at the time being placed on lockdown.

Global stock markets fell on 24 February 2020 due to a significant rise in the number of COVID-19 cases outside mainland China. By 28 February 2020, stock markets worldwide realized their largest single-week declines since the financial crisis of 2007–2008. This culminated in the 2020 stock market crash. (Full article...)

Workplace

An inverted triangle consisting of five colored horizontal levels, each containing one tee five hazard control methods: elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment
The hierarchy of hazard controls contains methods for controlling exposures to hazards. Methods listed towards the top potentially more effective than those at the bottom at reducing the risk of illness or injury.[2]

Hazard controls for COVID-19 in workplaces are the application of occupational safety and health methodologies for hazard controls to the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against severe illness or death from COVID-19. Multiple layers of controls are recommended, including measures such as telework and flexible schedules, increased ventilation, personal protective equipment (PPE) and face coverings, physical distancing, and enhanced cleaning programs. (Full article...)

Misinformation

COVID-19 misinformation refers to any kind of subject about the COVID-19 pandemic that has resulted in misinformation and conspiracy theories about the scale of the pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. False information, including intentional disinformation, has been spread through social media, text messaging, and mass media. False information has been propagated by celebrities, politicians, and other prominent public figures. Multiple countries have passed laws against "fake news", and thousands of people have been arrested for spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The spread of COVID-19 misinformation by governments has also been significant. (Full article...)

Testing

COVID-19 testing involves analyzing samples to assess the current or past presence of SARS-CoV-2. The two main branches detect either the presence of the virus or of antibodies produced in response to infection. Molecular tests for viral presence through its molecular components are used to diagnose individual cases and to allow public health authorities to trace and contain outbreaks. Antibody tests (serology immunoassays) instead show whether someone once had the disease. They are less useful for diagnosing current infections because antibodies may not develop for weeks after infection. It is used to assess disease prevalence, which aids the estimation of the infection fatality rate. (Full article...)

Vaccine research

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Prior to the COVID‑19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020. The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness. On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID-19. The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the spread, severity, and death caused by COVID-19. (Full article...)

Drug research

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop preventative therapeutic prescription drugs that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From early 2020 through 2021, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing therapeutic candidates for COVID-19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research (506 total candidates in April 2021), with 419 potential COVID-19 drugs in clinical trials, as of April 2021. (Full article...)

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Get involved by joining WikiProject COVID-19. We discuss collaborations and all manner of issues on our talk page. As of 24 October 2021, there are 2,088 articles within the project's scope. A full list is available here.

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References

  1. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2021). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2021-10-23.
  2. ^ "Hierarchy of Controls". U.S. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 2017-03-05.

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