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Portal:COVID-19

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The COVID-19 portal

SARS-CoV-2 as seen by a cryo-electron tomography scan.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic.

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmissions. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures. (Full article...)

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About the virus

This colorized transmission electron microscope image shows SARS-CoV-2—also known as 2019-nCoV, the virus that causes COVID-19—isolated from a patient in the U.S.

SARS‑CoV‑2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.

Like the SARS-related coronavirus implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS‑CoV‑2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). Coronaviruses undergo frequent recombination. The mechanism of recombination in unsegmented RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 is generally by copy-choice replication, in which gene material switches from one RNA template molecule to another during replication. SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length, relatively long for a coronavirus (which in turn carry the largest genomes among all RNA families) Its genome consists nearly entirely of protein-coding sequences, a trait shared with other coronaviruses. (Full article...)

About the symptoms and spread

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Common symptoms include headache, loss of smell and taste, nasal congestion and runny nose, cough, muscle pain, sore throat, fever, diarrhea, and breathing difficulties. People with the same infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of cases

As is common with infections, there is a delay between the moment a person first becomes infected and the appearance of the first symptoms. The median delay for COVID-19 is four to five days. Most symptomatic people experience symptoms within two to seven days after exposure, and almost all will experience at least one symptom within 12 days. (Full article...)

The disease is mainly transmitted via the respiratory route when people inhale droplets and small airborne particles (that form an aerosol) that infected people breath out as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing. Infected people are more likely to transmit COVID-19 when they are physically close. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors. 2). (Full article...)

Disease progress

Cases
241,568,522
Deaths
4,913,106

Location Cases Deaths
World[a] 241,568,522 4,913,106
United States United States 45,132,148 728,192
European Union European Union[b] 39,063,900 785,663
India India 34,108,996 452,651
Brazil Brazil 21,664,879 603,855
United Kingdom United Kingdom 8,581,278 139,265
Russia Russia 7,936,798 221,314
Turkey Turkey 7,714,349 68,060
France France 7,196,754 118,272
Iran Iran 5,809,967 124,423
Argentina Argentina 5,274,766 115,737
Spain Spain 4,990,767 87,051
Colombia Colombia 4,983,527 126,910
Italy Italy 4,722,188 131,655
Germany Germany 4,410,921 94,812
Indonesia Indonesia 4,236,287 143,049
Mexico Mexico 3,758,469 284,477
Poland Poland 2,945,056 76,179
South Africa South Africa 2,917,255 88,674
Ukraine Ukraine 2,784,227 65,359
Philippines Philippines 2,731,735 40,972
Malaysia Malaysia 2,401,866 28,062
Peru Peru 2,190,396 199,882
Netherlands Netherlands 2,094,470 18,698
Iraq Iraq 2,038,847 22,810
Thailand Thailand 1,802,934 18,407
Japan Japan 1,716,117 18,156
Czech Republic Czechia 1,712,246 30,570
Canada Canada 1,695,788 28,657
Chile Chile 1,672,998 37,623
Bangladesh Bangladesh 1,566,296 27,785
Romania Romania 1,486,264 42,616
Israel Israel 1,319,001 8,021
Belgium Belgium 1,292,887 25,797
Pakistan Pakistan 1,266,204 28,312
Sweden Sweden 1,163,595 14,963
Portugal Portugal 1,080,929 18,106
Serbia Serbia 1,062,960 9,214
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 999,374 16,766
Morocco Morocco 942,779 14,566
Cuba Cuba 938,577 8,101
Vietnam Vietnam 870,255 21,344
Switzerland Switzerland 858,198 11,168
Jordan Jordan 844,801 10,895
Hungary Hungary 837,248 30,418
Nepal Nepal 806,517 11,305
Austria Austria 780,269 11,196
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 738,812 2,122
Tunisia Tunisia 711,007 25,103
Greece Greece 700,959 15,447
Georgia (country) Georgia 670,552 9,546
Lebanon Lebanon 634,669 8,434
Guatemala Guatemala 589,986 14,436
Belarus Belarus 575,856 4,432
Costa Rica Costa Rica 553,661 6,880
Bulgaria Bulgaria 550,555 22,612
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 548,018 8,767
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 532,766 13,525
Ecuador Ecuador 514,087 32,937
Bolivia Bolivia 507,134 18,877
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 505,554 6,793
Myanmar Myanmar 490,008 18,416
Panama Panama 470,395 7,294
Paraguay Paraguay 460,582 16,228
State of Palestine Palestine 449,031 4,590
Slovakia Slovakia 439,735 12,864
Croatia Croatia 429,974 8,928
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 419,087 5,306
Kuwait Kuwait 412,403 2,458
Venezuela Venezuela 395,223 4,748
Uruguay Uruguay 391,358 6,069
Honduras Honduras 373,206 10,147
Lithuania Lithuania 372,585 5,489
Denmark Denmark 372,197 2,692
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 372,077 4,093
Ethiopia Ethiopia 359,881 6,258
Libya Libya 351,224 4,924
South Korea South Korea 346,088 2,698
Mongolia Mongolia 342,992 1,591
Egypt Egypt 320,207 18,058
Moldova Moldova 319,614 7,309
Slovenia Slovenia 310,170 4,645
Oman Oman 304,066 4,106
Armenia Armenia 284,237 5,842
Bahrain Bahrain 276,262 1,392
Kenya Kenya 252,199 5,233
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 245,791 11,228
Qatar Qatar 238,079 608
Zambia Zambia 209,549 3,658
Nigeria Nigeria 209,546 2,838
Algeria Algeria 205,453 5,875
North Macedonia North Macedonia 197,669 6,978
Norway Norway 197,504 884
Latvia Latvia 188,722 2,920
Botswana Botswana 184,051 2,389
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 181,654 1,292
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 180,006 2,638
Albania Albania 178,804 2,841
Estonia Estonia 174,436 1,435
Kosovo Kosovo 160,558 2,974
Afghanistan Afghanistan 155,801 7,247
Singapore Singapore 154,725 246
Finland Finland 151,787 1,128
Mozambique Mozambique 151,136 1,927
Australia Australia 149,398 1,577
Montenegro Montenegro 138,607 2,042
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 132,405 4,659
Ghana Ghana 129,592 1,169
Namibia Namibia 128,377 3,540
Uganda Uganda 125,283 3,187
Cyprus Cyprus 122,528 565
Cambodia Cambodia 117,035 2,681
El Salvador El Salvador 110,188 3,505
Cameroon Cameroon 100,289 1,600
Rwanda Rwanda 99,213 1,314
China China[c] 96,678 4,636
Jamaica Jamaica 87,667 2,123
Maldives Maldives 86,324 239
Luxembourg Luxembourg 80,085 840
Senegal Senegal 73,875 1,872
Angola Angola 63,197 1,678
Malawi Malawi 61,732 2,295
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 61,089 685
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 57,338 1,091
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 54,405 1,613
Fiji Fiji 51,846 663
Suriname Suriname 47,284 1,040
Eswatini Eswatini 46,372 1,236
Madagascar Madagascar 43,622 960
Syria Syria 39,902 2,446
Sudan Sudan 39,839 3,038
Cape Verde Cabo Verde 38,052 347
Malta Malta 37,486 459
Mauritania Mauritania 36,759 790
Guyana Guyana 34,608 877
Gabon Gabon 33,842 218
Laos Laos 32,971 45
Guinea Guinea 30,599 385
Tanzania Tanzania 26,034 724
Togo Togo 25,926 240
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 25,356 312
Belize Belize 24,768 466
Benin Benin 24,560 161
Haiti Haiti 23,324 658
The Bahamas Bahamas 22,048 626
Seychelles Seychelles 21,991 119
Lesotho Lesotho 21,557 655
Somalia Somalia 21,269 1,180
Burundi Burundi 19,745 38
East Timor Timor-Leste 19,730 120
Tajikistan Tajikistan 17,484 125
Mauritius Mauritius 16,805 141
Taiwan Taiwan 16,343 846
Nicaragua Nicaragua 16,241 207
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 15,962 231
Mali Mali 15,674 558
Andorra Andorra 15,369 130
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 14,759 209
Barbados Barbados 13,553 120
Djibouti Djibouti 13,423 181
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 13,020 161
Iceland Iceland 12,703 33
Hong Kong Hong Kong 12,301 213
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 12,280 237
South Sudan South Sudan 12,250 130
Central African Republic Central African Republic 11,478 100
Brunei Brunei 11,220 77
The Gambia Gambia 9,946 339
Yemen Yemen 9,575 1,813
Eritrea Eritrea 6,778 45
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 6,397 121
Niger Niger 6,193 205
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 6,130 141
Liberia Liberia 5,807 286
Grenada Grenada 5,776 193
San Marino San Marino 5,479 91
New Zealand New Zealand 5,214 28
Chad Chad 5,069 174
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4,637 54
Dominica Dominica 4,366 30
Comoros Comoros 4,191 147
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 3,918 95
São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe 3,685 56
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 3,606 60
Monaco Monaco 3,378 35
Bhutan Bhutan 2,617 3
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 2,574 21
Vatican City Vatican City 27 0
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 20
Palau Palau 8 0
Vanuatu Vanuatu 4 1
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 4
Samoa Samoa 3
Kiribati Kiribati 2
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 1 0
  1. ^ Countries which do not report data for a column are not included in that column's world total.
  2. ^ Data on member states of the European Union are individually listed, but are also summed here for convenience. They are not double-counted in world totals.
  3. ^ Does not include special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau) or Taiwan.

National responses

Due to the pandemic in Europe, many countries in the Schengen Area have restricted free movement and set up border controls. National reactions have included containment measures such as quarantines and curfews (known as stay-at-home orders, shelter-in-place orders, or lockdowns). The WHO's recommendation on curfews and lockdowns is that they should be short-term measures to reorganise, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect health workers who are exhausted. To achieve a balance between restrictions and normal life, the long-term responses to the pandemic should consist of strict personal hygiene, effective contact tracing, and isolating when ill.

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Recent news

21 October 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in India
India has administered more than a billion Covid vaccinations since it started its vaccination drive in January this year. (BBC News)
20 October 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in Africa
COVID-19 pandemic in Kenya
Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta lifts the nationwide curfew that had been in place since March 2020 and allows places of worship to be filled to two-thirds of their capacity as the number of COVID-19 cases decreases. (Bloomberg)
COVID-19 pandemic in Senegal

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Data maps

Economic impact

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching economic consequences beyond the spread of the disease itself and efforts to quarantine it. As the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector. The pandemic caused the 2nd largest global recession in history, with more than a third of the global population at the time being placed on lockdown.

Global stock markets fell on 24 February 2020 due to a significant rise in the number of COVID-19 cases outside mainland China. By 28 February 2020, stock markets worldwide realized their largest single-week declines since the financial crisis of 2007–2008. This culminated in the 2020 stock market crash. (Full article...)

Workplace

An inverted triangle consisting of five colored horizontal levels, each containing one tee five hazard control methods: elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment
The hierarchy of hazard controls contains methods for controlling exposures to hazards. Methods listed towards the top potentially more effective than those at the bottom at reducing the risk of illness or injury.[2]

Hazard controls for COVID-19 in workplaces are the application of occupational safety and health methodologies for hazard controls to the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against severe illness or death from COVID-19. Multiple layers of controls are recommended, including measures such as telework and flexible schedules, increased ventilation, personal protective equipment (PPE) and face coverings, physical distancing, and enhanced cleaning programs. (Full article...)

Misinformation

COVID-19 misinformation refers to any kind of subject about the COVID-19 pandemic that has resulted in misinformation and conspiracy theories about the scale of the pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. False information, including intentional disinformation, has been spread through social media, text messaging, and mass media. False information has been propagated by celebrities, politicians, and other prominent public figures. Multiple countries have passed laws against "fake news", and thousands of people have been arrested for spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The spread of COVID-19 misinformation by governments has also been significant. (Full article...)

Testing

COVID-19 testing involves analyzing samples to assess the current or past presence of SARS-CoV-2. The two main branches detect either the presence of the virus or of antibodies produced in response to infection. Molecular tests for viral presence through its molecular components are used to diagnose individual cases and to allow public health authorities to trace and contain outbreaks. Antibody tests (serology immunoassays) instead show whether someone once had the disease. They are less useful for diagnosing current infections because antibodies may not develop for weeks after infection. It is used to assess disease prevalence, which aids the estimation of the infection fatality rate. (Full article...)

Vaccine research

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Prior to the COVID‑19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020. The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness. On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID-19. The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the spread, severity, and death caused by COVID-19. (Full article...)

Drug research

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop preventative therapeutic prescription drugs that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From early 2020 through 2021, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing therapeutic candidates for COVID-19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research (506 total candidates in April 2021), with 419 potential COVID-19 drugs in clinical trials, as of April 2021. (Full article...)

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Get involved by joining WikiProject COVID-19. We discuss collaborations and all manner of issues on our talk page. As of 21 October 2021, there are 2,087 articles within the project's scope. A full list is available here.

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References

  1. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2021). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  2. ^ "Hierarchy of Controls". U.S. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 2017-03-05.

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