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Portal:COVID-19

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The COVID-19 portal

SARS-CoV-2 as seen by a cryo-electron tomography scan.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic.

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmissions. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures. (Full article...)

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About the virus

This colorized transmission electron microscope image shows SARS-CoV-2—also known as 2019-nCoV, the virus that causes COVID-19—isolated from a patient in the U.S.

SARS‑CoV‑2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.

Like the SARS-related coronavirus implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS‑CoV‑2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). Coronaviruses undergo frequent recombination. The mechanism of recombination in unsegmented RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 is generally by copy-choice replication, in which gene material switches from one RNA template molecule to another during replication. SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length, relatively long for a coronavirus (which in turn carry the largest genomes among all RNA families) Its genome consists nearly entirely of protein-coding sequences, a trait shared with other coronaviruses. (Full article...)

About the symptoms and spread

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Common symptoms include headache, loss of smell and taste, nasal congestion and runny nose, cough, muscle pain, sore throat, fever, diarrhea, and breathing difficulties. People with the same infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of cases.

As is common with infections, there is a delay between the moment a person first becomes infected and the appearance of the first symptoms. The median delay for COVID-19 is four to five days. Most symptomatic people experience symptoms within two to seven days after exposure, and almost all will experience at least one symptom within 12 days. (Full article...)

The disease is mainly transmitted via the respiratory route when people inhale droplets and small airborne particles (that form an aerosol) that infected people exhale as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing. Infected people are more likely to transmit COVID-19 when they are physically close. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors. (Full article...)

Disease progress

Cases
266,457,039
Deaths
5,262,849

Location Cases Deaths
World[a] 266,457,039 5,262,849
United States United States 49,278,278 789,905
European Union European Union[b] 48,226,589 856,719
India India 34,648,383 473,757
Brazil Brazil 22,147,476 615,744
United Kingdom United Kingdom 10,575,062 146,101
Russia Russia 9,661,865 276,979
Turkey Turkey 8,923,120 78,017
France France 8,021,594 120,522
Germany Germany 6,219,259 103,240
Iran Iran 6,137,821 130,277
Argentina Argentina 5,343,153 116,680
Spain Spain 5,202,958 88,159
Italy Italy 5,118,576 134,287
Colombia Colombia 5,082,762 128,821
Indonesia Indonesia 4,257,815 143,876
Mexico Mexico 3,902,015 295,313
Poland Poland 3,684,671 85,700
Ukraine Ukraine 3,673,839 94,002
South Africa South Africa 3,038,075 89,975
Philippines Philippines 2,835,154 49,499
Netherlands Netherlands 2,814,521 20,153
Malaysia Malaysia 2,663,034 30,652
Czech Republic Czech Republic 2,247,067 33,768
Peru Peru 2,243,415 201,379
Thailand Thailand 2,148,766 20,997
Iraq Iraq 2,084,961 23,903
Belgium Belgium 1,868,906 27,319
Canada Canada 1,820,693 29,854
Romania Romania 1,786,839 57,153
Chile Chile 1,774,048 38,531
Japan Japan 1,727,283 18,361
Bangladesh Bangladesh 1,577,720 28,005
Israel Israel 1,346,670 8,209
Vietnam Vietnam 1,323,683 26,483
Pakistan Pakistan 1,287,393 28,784
Serbia Serbia 1,265,228 11,955
Slovakia Slovakia 1,234,982 14,900
Sweden Sweden 1,212,145 15,170
Austria Austria 1,203,103 12,844
Portugal Portugal 1,169,003 18,551
Hungary Hungary 1,157,568 35,611
Switzerland Switzerland 1,068,528 11,625
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1,059,309 17,948
Jordan Jordan 981,767 11,787
Greece Greece 971,148 18,716
Cuba Cuba 963,194 8,310
Morocco Morocco 950,643 14,788
Georgia (country) Georgia 867,071 12,407
Nepal Nepal 822,830 11,543
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 742,376 2,149
Tunisia Tunisia 718,443 25,401
Bulgaria Bulgaria 705,586 29,060
Lebanon Lebanon 679,625 8,785
Belarus Belarus 665,125 5,176
Croatia Croatia 631,765 11,269
Guatemala Guatemala 619,891 15,992
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 597,161 5,707
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 596,973 7,983
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 568,423 14,484
Costa Rica Costa Rica 567,614 7,318
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 549,955 8,845
Bolivia Bolivia 544,666 19,247
Ecuador Ecuador 529,349 33,484
Myanmar Myanmar 524,638 19,146
Denmark Denmark 521,835 2,969
South Korea South Korea 482,310 3,957
Lithuania Lithuania 480,310 6,862
Panama Panama 479,053 7,374
Paraguay Paraguay 463,427 16,479
State of Palestine Palestine 462,219 4,817
Venezuela Venezuela 434,918 5,193
Slovenia Slovenia 430,839 5,319
Kuwait Kuwait 413,524 2,465
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 408,748 4,212
Uruguay Uruguay 401,103 6,136
Mongolia Mongolia 383,682 2,017
Honduras Honduras 378,251 10,412
Libya Libya 375,468 5,499
Ethiopia Ethiopia 372,334 6,804
Moldova Moldova 366,751 9,244
Egypt Egypt 364,033 20,770
Armenia Armenia 340,818 7,691
Oman Oman 304,612 4,113
Norway Norway 287,123 1,096
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 278,511 12,780
Bahrain Bahrain 277,856 1,394
Singapore Singapore 269,873 763
Latvia Latvia 257,559 4,277
Kenya Kenya 255,469 5,335
Qatar Qatar 244,387 611
Estonia Estonia 225,294 1,825
Australia Australia 220,555 2,065
North Macedonia North Macedonia 217,400 7,658
Nigeria Nigeria 214,789 2,980
Algeria Algeria 211,662 6,111
Zambia Zambia 210,327 3,668
Albania Albania 201,902 3,115
Botswana Botswana 195,552 2,420
Finland Finland 194,638 1,383
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 194,556 1,421
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 183,649 2,760
Kosovo Kosovo 161,139 2,985
Montenegro Montenegro 158,623 2,331
Afghanistan Afghanistan 157,499 7,316
Mozambique Mozambique 152,000 1,941
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 139,046 4,710
Cyprus Cyprus 137,538 602
Ghana Ghana 131,246 1,228
Namibia Namibia 129,796 3,574
Uganda Uganda 127,756 3,256
Cambodia Cambodia 120,272 2,963
El Salvador El Salvador 119,803 3,786
Cameroon Cameroon 107,148 1,804
Rwanda Rwanda 100,429 1,343
China China[c] 99,374 4,636
Maldives Maldives 92,368 255
Luxembourg Luxembourg 91,709 885
Jamaica Jamaica 91,536 2,410
Laos Laos 80,722 210
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 75,935 2,281
Senegal Senegal 74,031 1,886
Angola Angola 65,259 1,735
Malawi Malawi 61,997 2,307
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 61,826 706
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 58,858 1,113
Fiji Fiji 52,562 697
Suriname Suriname 51,052 1,174
Syria Syria 48,709 2,782
Eswatini Eswatini 47,851 1,248
Madagascar Madagascar 44,800 972
Sudan Sudan 44,170 3,200
Malta Malta 40,015 468
Mauritania Mauritania 39,584 842
Cape Verde Cabo Verde 38,453 351
Guyana Guyana 38,217 1,008
Gabon Gabon 37,511 281
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 35,538 550
Belize Belize 30,824 588
Guinea Guinea 30,770 387
Togo Togo 26,315 243
Tanzania Tanzania 26,270 730
Barbados Barbados 26,200 240
Haiti Haiti 25,638 750
Benin Benin 24,863 161
Seychelles Seychelles 23,664 127
Somalia Somalia 23,051 1,331
The Bahamas Bahamas 22,839 705
Mauritius Mauritius 22,156 240
Lesotho Lesotho 21,838 663
Burundi Burundi 20,473 38
East Timor Timor-Leste 19,828 122
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 18,970 354
Iceland Iceland 18,642 35
Andorra Andorra 18,631 133
Mali Mali 17,971 618
Tajikistan Tajikistan 17,493 125
Nicaragua Nicaragua 17,254 213
Taiwan Taiwan 16,662 848
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 16,000 286
Brunei Brunei 15,202 98
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 13,599 175
Djibouti Djibouti 13,508 188
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 13,048 282
South Sudan South Sudan 12,823 133
Hong Kong Hong Kong 12,466 213
New Zealand New Zealand 12,430 44
Central African Republic Central African Republic 11,742 101
Yemen Yemen 10,034 1,955
The Gambia Gambia 9,998 342
Eritrea Eritrea 7,484 61
Niger Niger 7,091 264
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 6,444 149
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 6,402 121
San Marino San Marino 6,217 94
Dominica Dominica 6,086 42
Grenada Grenada 5,909 200
Liberia Liberia 5,829 287
Chad Chad 5,703 181
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5,623 76
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 4,941 62
Comoros Comoros 4,543 151
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 4,148 117
Monaco Monaco 3,902 36
São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe 3,733 56
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 2,790 28
Bhutan Bhutan 2,641 3
Vatican City Vatican City 27 0
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 20
Palau Palau 8 0
Vanuatu Vanuatu 6 1
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 4
Samoa Samoa 3
Kiribati Kiribati 2
Tonga Tonga 1
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 1 0
  1. ^ Countries which do not report data for a column are not included in that column's world total.
  2. ^ Data on member states of the European Union are individually listed, but are also summed here for convenience. They are not double-counted in world totals.
  3. ^ Does not include special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau) or Taiwan.

National responses

Due to the pandemic in Europe, many countries in the Schengen Area have restricted free movement and set up border controls. National reactions have included containment measures such as quarantines and curfews (known as stay-at-home orders, shelter-in-place orders, or lockdowns). The WHO's recommendation on curfews and lockdowns is that they should be short-term measures to reorganise, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect health workers who are exhausted. To achieve a balance between restrictions and normal life, the long-term responses to the pandemic should consist of strict personal hygiene, effective contact tracing, and isolating when ill.

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Recent news

8 December 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
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India's Serum Institute will halve the production of its COVID-19 vaccine because it has no fresh orders, its top-ranking executive has said. (BBC News)
7 December 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in Europe
COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom
COVID-19 pandemic in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland reports its first cases of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in two people from the same household in the greater Belfast area and a third unrelated person. (The Independent)

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Data maps

Economic impact

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching economic consequences beyond the spread of the disease itself and efforts to quarantine it. As the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector. The pandemic caused the 2nd largest global recession in history, with more than a third of the global population at the time being placed on lockdown.

Global stock markets fell on 24 February 2020 due to a significant rise in the number of COVID-19 cases outside mainland China. By 28 February 2020, stock markets worldwide realized their largest single-week declines since the financial crisis of 2007–2008. This culminated in the 2020 stock market crash. (Full article...)

Workplace

An inverted triangle consisting of five colored horizontal levels, each containing one tee five hazard control methods: elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment
The hierarchy of hazard controls contains methods for controlling exposures to hazards. Methods listed towards the top potentially more effective than those at the bottom at reducing the risk of illness or injury.[2]

Hazard controls for COVID-19 in workplaces are the application of occupational safety and health methodologies for hazard controls to the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against severe illness or death from COVID-19. Multiple layers of controls are recommended, including measures such as telework and flexible schedules, increased ventilation, personal protective equipment (PPE) and face coverings, physical distancing, and enhanced cleaning programs. (Full article...)

Misinformation

COVID-19 misinformation refers to misinformation and conspiracy theories about the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease COVID-19, which is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. False information, including intentional disinformation, has been spread through social media, text messaging, and mass media. False information has been propagated by celebrities, politicians, and other prominent public figures. Multiple countries have passed laws against "fake news", and thousands of people have been arrested for spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The spread of COVID-19 misinformation by governments has also been significant. (Full article...)

Testing

COVID-19 testing involves analyzing samples to assess the current or past presence of SARS-CoV-2. The two main branches detect either the presence of the virus or of antibodies produced in response to infection. Molecular tests for viral presence through its molecular components are used to diagnose individual cases and to allow public health authorities to trace and contain outbreaks. Antibody tests (serology immunoassays) instead show whether someone once had the disease. They are less useful for diagnosing current infections because antibodies may not develop for weeks after infection. It is used to assess disease prevalence, which aids the estimation of the infection fatality rate. (Full article...)

Vaccine research

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Prior to the COVID‑19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020. The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness. On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID‑19. The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the severity and death caused by COVID‑19. (Full article...)

Drug research

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop preventative therapeutic prescription drugs that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From early 2020 through 2021, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing therapeutic candidates for COVID-19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research (506 total candidates in April 2021), with 419 potential COVID-19 drugs in clinical trials, as of April 2021. (Full article...)

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Get involved by joining WikiProject COVID-19. We discuss collaborations and all manner of issues on our talk page. As of 8 December 2021, there are 2,146 articles within the project's scope. A full list is available here.

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References

  1. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2021). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2021-12-08.
  2. ^ "Hierarchy of Controls". U.S. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 2017-03-05.

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