Portal:Coronavirus disease 2019

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Coronavirus disease 2019 portal

COVID-19 symptoms
Symptoms of COVID-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the 2019–2020 coronavirus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include muscle pain, sputum production, diarrhea, sore throat, and abdominal pain. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. As of March 25, 2020, the overall rate of deaths per number of diagnosed cases is 4.5 percent; ranging from 0.2 percent to 15 percent according to age group and other health problems.


The virus is mainly spread during close contact and via respiratory droplets produced when people cough or sneeze. Respiratory droplets may be produced during breathing but the virus is not considered airborne. People may also catch COVID-19 by touching a contaminated surface and then their face. It is most contagious when people are symptomatic, although spread may be possible before symptoms appear. The virus can live on surfaces up to 72 hours. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between two and fourteen days, with an average of five days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia.


Recommended measures to prevent infection include frequent hand washing, social distancing (maintaining physical distance from others, especially from those with symptoms), covering coughs and sneezes with a tissue or inner elbow, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of masks is recommended by some national health authorities for those who suspect they have the virus and their caregivers, but not for the general public, although simple cloth masks may be used by those who desire them. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19. Management involves treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures. Read more...

Recent news

28 March 2020 – 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic
2020 coronavirus pandemic in Asia
2020 coronavirus pandemic in Brunei
Brunei reports its first death from COVID-19, a 64-year-old man, as confirmed cases rise to 115 in the country. (Reuters)
2020 coronavirus pandemic in Uzbekistan
A 39-year-old doctor dies after he secretly underwent self-treatment for COVID-19. He was hospitalized on March 26 in grave condition. The doctor had been in contact with Uzbekistan's "patient zero". (Reuters)
2020 coronavirus pandemic in Europe
2020 coronavirus pandemic in the United Kingdom
The Department of Health and Social Care reports 260 more deaths from COVID-19, the highest daily death toll in the country to date, bringing the United Kingdom's death toll to 1,019 with 17,089 confirmed cases. The patients included in the new figures were aged between 33 and 100 years old, with the majority being in England. (BBC)
27 March 2020 – Impact of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic on cinema
Cinema of China, 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic in mainland China
China re-closes their cinemas over fears of a second coronavirus outbreak in the country. (The Guardian)

More current events...

Covid-19-curves-graphic-social-v3.gif

Disease progress

2019–20 coronavirus pandemic by country and territory

Locations[a] Cases[b] Deaths[c] Recov.[d] Ref.
182 622,961 28,696 134,704
United States[e] 105,006 1,715 2,537 [4][5]
Italy[f] 86,498 9,134 10,950 [8]
China (mainland)[g] 81,394 3,295 74,971 [9]
Spain[h] 72,248 5,694 12,285 [11]
Germany 55,570 404 4,107 [12]
Iran[i] 35,408 2,517 11,679 [13]
France[j] 32,964 1,995 5,700 [15][16]
United Kingdom[k] 17,089 1,028 140 [22][23]
Switzerland 13,795 255 1,524 [24]
Netherlands[l] 9,806 640 [26]
South Korea 9,478 144 4,811 [27][4]
Belgium 9,134 353 1,063 [28]
Austria 8,030 68 225 [29][30]
Turkey 5,698 92 42 [31][32]
Portugal 5,170 100 43 [33]
Canada 4,326 55 353 [34]
Norway[m] 3,973 22 [35]
Australia[n] 3,636 14 224 [38]
Brazil 3,477 93 6 [4][39]
Israel 3,460 12 89 [40]
Sweden[o] 3,079 106 18 [41][42]
Czech Republic 2,541 9 11 [43]
Denmark[p] 2,366 65 [45]
Malaysia 2,320 27 320 [49][50]
Ireland 2,121 22 5 [51]
Ecuador 1,823 48 3 [52]
Chile 1,610 5 43 [53]
Luxembourg 1,605 15 6 [54]
Japan 1,499 49 359 [55]
Poland 1,481 17 12 [56]
Romania 1,452 29 139 [57][58]
Pakistan 1,420 11 25 [59]
Russia[q] 1,264 4 49 [63]
Thailand 1,245 6 100 [64][65]
Saudi Arabia 1,203 4 37 [66]
South Africa 1,170 1 31 [67]
Finland[r] 1,163 7 10 [70][71]
Indonesia 1,155 102 59 [72]
Philippines 1,075 68 35 [73]
Greece 1,061 32 52 [74][75]
India 918 19 80 [76]
Iceland 890 2 97 [77]
Singapore 802 2 198 [78][79]
Panama 786 14 2 [80]
Dominican Republic 719 28 3 [81]
Mexico 717 12 4 [82]
Cruise ship side view.svg Diamond Princess[s] 712 11 601 [83]
Argentina 690 17 51 [84]
Slovenia 684 9 10 [85]
Serbia[t] 659 10 42 [87][4]
Croatia 657 5 49 [88]
Estonia 640 1 20 [89]
Peru 635 11 16 [90]
Qatar 562 0 43 [91][92]
Hong Kong 560 4 112 [93]
Colombia 539 6 10 [94]
Egypt[u] 536 30 116 [95]
Iraq 506 42 131 [96]
Bahrain 473 4 254 [97]
United Arab Emirates 468 2 55 [98]
New Zealand 416 0 50 [99]
Lebanon 412 8 27 [100][101]
Algeria 409 26 29 [102]
Lithuania 382 5 1 [103]
Armenia 372 1 28 [104]
Morocco 358 23 11 [4][105]
Hungary 343 11 34 [106]
Bulgaria 313 4 9 [107]
Ukraine[v] 311 8 5 [108]
Andorra 308 3 5 [109]
Latvia 305 0 1 [4][110]
Slovakia 292 0 7 [111][112]
Taiwan 283 2 30 [113][114]
Uruguay 274 0 0 [4][115]
Costa Rica 263 2 3 [116]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 258 5 5 [117]
North Macedonia 241 4 3 [118][119]
Jordan 235 1 18 [120]
Kuwait 235 0 64 [121]
Kazakhstan 228 1 16 [122]
Tunisia 227 7 2 [123][124]
San Marino 223 21 6 [125]
Burkina Faso 207 11 21 [4]
Moldova[w] 199 2 3 [127]
Albania 197 10 33 [128]
Azerbaijan 182 4 15 [129]
Vietnam 174 0 21 [130]
Cyprus[x] 162 5 15 [131]
Oman 152 0 23 [132]
Malta 149 0 2 [133]
Ghana 141 5 2 [134]
Senegal 130 0 18 [4]
Brunei 120 1 25 [135][136]
Cuba[y] 119 3 4 [137]
Sri Lanka 113 1 9 [138]
Venezuela 113 2 39 [139][140]
Afghanistan 110 4 2 [4]
Uzbekistan 104 2 0 [141]
Cambodia 102 0 13 [142]
Mauritius 102 2 0 [143]
Ivory Coast 101 0 3 [4]
Palestine 97 1 18 [144]
Honduras 95 1 0 [145][146]
Belarus 94 0 32 [147]
Cameroon 91 2 2 [4]
Georgia 90 0 16 [148][149]
Nigeria 89 1 3 [150][151]
Kosovo 88 1 1 [152]
Montenegro 82 1 0 [153]
Bolivia 74 0 0 [154]
Trinidad and Tobago 74 2 1 [155]
DR Congo 58 8 2 [4]
Kyrgyzstan 58 0 0 [156]
Northern Cyprus 57 0 29 [157]
Liechtenstein 56 0 0 [158]
Paraguay 56 3 5 [159]
Rwanda 54 0 0 [4][160]
Jersey 52 1 0 [161]
Bangladesh 48 5 11 [162]
Monaco 42 0 1 [163]
Kenya 38 1 1 [4]
Guernsey 36 0 0 [164]
Macau 35 0 10 [165]
Guatemala 32 1 5 [166]
Jamaica 30 1 2 [167][4]
Isle of Man 29 0 0 [168][169]
Zambia 28 0 0 [4]
Barbados 26 0 0 [170]
Madagascar 26 0 0 [4]
Togo 25 0 1 [171]
Uganda 23 0 0 [172]
El Salvador 19 0 0 [4]
Mali 18 0 0 [4]
Ethiopia 16 0 0 [4]
Maldives 13 0 3 [173]
Tanzania 13 0 0 [174]
Djibouti 12 0 0 [4]
Equatorial Guinea 12 0 0 [4]
Mongolia 12 0 0 [4]
Dominica 11 0 0 [175]
Bahamas 10 0 0 [176]
Niger 10 1 0 [4]
Eswatini 9 0 0 [177][4]
Guinea 8 0 1 [4]
Haiti 8 0 0 [178]
Mozambique 8 0 0 [4]
Myanmar 8 0 0 [179]
Namibia 8 0 2 [4]
Suriname 8 0 0 [180]
Benin 7 0 0 [4]
Gabon 7 1 0 [4]
Grenada 7 0 0 [181]
Seychelles 7 0 0 [182]
Zimbabwe 7 1 0 [183]
Eritrea 6 0 0 [4]
Laos 6 0 0 [184]
Fiji 5 0 0 [185]
Sudan 5 1 0 [186][187]
Guyana 5 1 0 [188]
Mauritania 5 0 0 [4]
Nepal 5 0 1 [189]
Syria 5 0 0 [190]
Angola 4 0 0 [191]
Cape Verde 4 1 0 [192]
Republic of the Congo 4 0 0 [4]
Nicaragua 4 1 0 [193]
Vatican City 4 0 0 [194]
Antigua and Barbuda 3 0 0 [4][195]
Bhutan 3 0 0 [196]
Central African Republic 3 0 0 [4]
Chad 3 0 0 [197]
Gambia 3 1 0 [198]
Liberia 3 0 0 [4][199]
Somalia 3 0 0 [200]
Saint Lucia 3 0 0 [4][201]
Belize 2 0 0 [202]
Guinea-Bissau 2 0 0 [203]
Cruise ship side view.svg MS Zaandam[z] 2 0 0 [204]
Saint Kitts and Nevis 2 0 0 [205]
East Timor 1 0 0 [206]
Libya 1 0 0 [207]
Papua New Guinea 1 0 0 [208]
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1 0 0 [209]
As of 26 March 2020 (UTC) · History of cases: China, international
Notes
  1. ^ Countries and territories, and one international conveyance where cases were diagnosed. Nationality and location of original infection may vary. In some countries, the cases cover several territories, as noted accordingly.
  2. ^ Cumulative confirmed cases reported to date. The actual number of infections and cases are likely to be higher than reported.[1]
  3. ^ Total deaths may not necessarily add up due to the frequency of values updating for each individual location.
  4. ^ Recovered cases. All recoveries may not be reported. "–" denotes that no reliable data is currently available for that territory, not that the value is zero. Additionally, total recoveries may not necessairly add up due to the frequency of values updating for each individual location.
  5. ^ United States Testing has been restricted to at-risk people showing severe symptoms.[2][3]
  6. ^ Italy
    Only at-risk people showing symptoms have been tested from 27 February 2020 and onwards.[6][7]
  7. ^ China
    Includes clinically diagnosed cases and deaths from 12 February 2020 and onwards in the province of Hubei.
  8. ^ Spain
    Testing has been restricted to at-risk people showing symptoms.[10]
  9. ^ Iran
    Includes clinically diagnosed cases and deaths from 9 March 2020 and onwards.
  10. ^ France
    Testing has been restricted to at-risk people showing severe symptoms.[14] As of 25 March 2020, includes 272 cases, 2 deaths and 7 recoveries in Overseas departments and regions:
    , as well as 50 cases in Overseas collectivities:
  11. ^ United Kingdom
    As of 26 March 2020, includes 47 cases, 1 death and 5 recoveries in the British Overseas Territories, not counted in the UK government sources:
  12. ^ Netherlands
    1. As of 28 March 2020, includes 44 cases and 1 death in constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Caribbean:
    2. The Dutch Government agency RIVM, responsible for the constituent country the Netherlands, does not count its number of recoveries.[25]
  13. ^ Norway
    1. From 13 March 2020, testing of the normal population was discontinued, and is now only reserved for health professionals and acutely ill people in vulnerable groups.
    2. The Norwegian Institute of Public Health states that there are more infected people in Norway than the figures show. The dark figures are presumed to be higher because of limited testing.[35]
    3. Estimation of number of coronavirus infected:
      • As of 23 March 2020, over 40% of all GPs in Norway have been registered 20,200 patients with the "corona code" R991. The figure includes both cases where the patient has been diagnosed with coronavirus infection through testing, and where the GP has used the "corona code" after assessing the patient's symptoms against the criteria by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.[36]
      • As of 24 March 2020, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health estimates that between 7,120 and 23,140 Norwegians are infected with the coronavirus.[37]
  14. ^ Australia
    Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance". Ten cases, including one fatality recorded by the Australian government.
  15. ^ Sweden
    Testing of suspected infections has been cut back in the whole country in the period around 12 March 2020, in order to focus efforts on people with increased risk of serious illness and complications.
  16. ^ Denmark
    1. As of 28 March 2020, includes 165 cases in constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark:
    2. The Danish Government does not report the number of recoveries.[47]
    3. From 12 March 2020, the criteria for testing has been changed; only people with more serious symptoms and health professionals are being tested.[48]
  17. ^ Russia
    Including cases from the disputed Crimea, which was annexed by Russia in 2014 but remains internationally recognized as being under Ukrainian sovereignty. Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance". One fatality was not officially recorded by the Russian authorities as caused by coronavirus.[60][61][62]
  18. ^ Finland
    1. As of 25 March 2020, includes 5 cases in the autonomous region of Åland Islands.[68]
    2. Testing is limited to severely ill or at-risk patients and social or health care workers.[69]
  19. ^ Diamond Princess
    The British cruise ship Diamond Princess was in Japanese waters, and Japanese administration was asked to manage its quarantine, with the passengers having not entered Japan. Therefore, this case is neither included in the Japanese government's official count nor in United Kingdom's one. The World Health Organization classifies the cases as being located "on an international conveyance".
  20. ^ Serbia
    Excluding Kosovo.[86]
  21. ^ Egypt
    Includes cases identified on the MS River Anuket.
  22. ^ Ukraine
    Excluding cases from the disputed Crimea, which was annexed by Russia in 2014 but remains internationally recognized as being under Ukrainian sovereignty. Because the Russian authorities are tabulating cases from Crimea, they are included in the Russian total.
  23. ^ Moldova
    Includes data from the unrecognised state of Transnistria.[126]
  24. ^ Cyprus
    Excluding Northern Cyprus
  25. ^ Cuba
    Includes cases on the MS Braemar.
  26. ^ MS Zaandam
    The cruise ship MS Zaandam was near Panamanian waters, with the intention of transiting the Panama Canal to make its way to Florida. But the Panamanian government has denied it access to the canal for "sanitary reasons" and has not counted it on their national figures.
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About the virus

Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.jpg

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously known by the provisional name 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. It is contagious in humans and is the cause of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has been designated a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO).

SARS-CoV-2 has close genetic similarity to bat coronaviruses, suggesting it emerged from a bat-borne virus. An intermediate animal reservoir such as a pangolin is also thought to be involved in its introduction to humans. From a taxonomic perspective, SARS-CoV-2 is classified as a strain of the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV). Read more...

About viruses

A virus is a tiny infectious agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts. When infected, the host cell is forced to rapidly produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus. Unlike most living things, viruses do not have cells that divide; new viruses assemble in the infected host cell. But unlike simpler infectious agents like prions, they contain genes, which allow them to mutate and evolve. Over 4,800 species of viruses have been described in detail out of the millions in the environment. Their origin is unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria.

Viruses are made of either two or three parts. All include genes. These genes contain the encoded biological information of the virus and are built from either DNA or RNA. All viruses are also covered with a protein coat to protect the genes. Some viruses may also have an envelope of fat-like substance that covers the protein coat, and makes them vulnerable to soap. A virus with this "viral envelope" uses it—along with specific receptors—to enter a new host cell. Viruses vary in shape from the simple helical and icosahedral to more complex structures. Viruses range in size from 20 to 300 nanometres; it would take 33,000 to 500,000 of them, side by side, to stretch to 1 centimetre (0.4 in).

Viruses spread in many ways. Although many are very specific about which host species or tissue they attack, each species of virus relies on a particular method to copy itself. Plant viruses are often spread from plant to plant by insects and other organisms, known as vectors. Some viruses of humans and other animals are spread by exposure to infected bodily fluids. Viruses such as influenza are spread through the air by droplets of moisture when people cough or sneeze. Viruses such as norovirus are transmitted by the faecal–oral route, which involves the contamination of hands, food and water. Rotavirus is often spread by direct contact with infected children. The human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, is transmitted by bodily fluids transferred during sex. Others, such as the dengue virus, are spread by blood-sucking insects. Read more...

Young polio victims receiving physiotherapy in the 1950s

The social history of viruses describes the influence of viruses and viral infections on human history. Epidemics caused by viruses began when human behaviour changed during the Neolithic period, around 12,000 years ago, when humans developed more densely populated agricultural communities. This allowed viruses to spread rapidly and subsequently to become endemic. Viruses of plants and livestock also increased, and as humans became dependent on agriculture and farming, diseases such as potyviruses of potatoes and rinderpest of cattle had devastating consequences.

Smallpox and measles viruses are among the oldest that infect humans. Having evolved from viruses that infected other animals, they first appeared in humans in Europe and North Africa thousands of years ago. The viruses were later carried to the New World by Europeans during the time of the Spanish Conquests, but the indigenous people had no natural resistance to the viruses and millions of them died during epidemics. Influenza pandemics have been recorded since 1580, and they have occurred with increasing frequency in subsequent centuries. The pandemic of 1918–19, in which 40–50 million died in less than a year, was one of the most devastating in history. Read more...

Socio-economic impact

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has had far-reaching consequences beyond the spread of the disease and efforts to quarantine it. As the pandemic has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector.

Economics

Economic turmoil associated with the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has wide-ranging and severe impacts upon financial markets, including stock, bond, and commodity (including crude oil and gold) markets. Major events included a described Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war after failing to reach an OPEC+ agreement that resulted in a collapse of crude oil prices and a stock market crash in March 2020. The effects upon markets are among the many socio-economic impacts of the pandemic.

Stock market crash (2020).svg

The 2020 stock market crash is a global stock market crash that began on 20 February, 2020. Multiple indexes such as the Dow Jones Industrial Average, Nikkei 225 and the S&P/ASX 200 all fell into a correction late February during one of the worst trading weeks since the financial crisis of 2007–08, thus starting what is now known as the 2020 stock market crash. Global markets into early March became extremely volatile, with large swings occurring in global markets. On 9 March, most global markets reported severe contractions, mainly in response to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic and a described Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war. This became colloquially known as Black Monday I, and at the time was the worst drop since the Great Recession in 2008.

On 8 March 2020, Saudi Arabia initiated a price war with Russia, triggering a major fall in the price of oil, with US oil prices falling by 34%, crude oil falling by 26%, and brent oil falling by 24%. The price war was triggered by a breakup in dialogue between the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and Russia over proposed oil production cuts in the midst of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Oil prices had already fallen 30% since the start of the year due to a drop in demand. The price war is one of the major causes of the currently ongoing global stock market crash.

Sports

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has caused a disruption to the 2020 worldwide sporting calendar, the most significant since World War II. Across the world and to varying degrees, sports events have been cancelled or postponed.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has impacted the 2020 Summer Olympics. Many qualifying matches have been cancelled or postponed. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced on 24 March that the Games will be postponed until 2021.

Xenophobia and racism

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, which was first reported in the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December 2019, has led to increased prejudice, xenophobia, discrimination, violence and racism against Chinese people and people of East Asian and Southeast Asian descent and appearance around the world.

Culture

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has had a significant impact on aviation industry due to the resulting travel restrictions as well as slump in demand among travelers. Significant reductions in passenger numbers has resulted in planes flying empty between airports and the cancellation of flights.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has had a substantial impact on the film industry. Across the world and to varying degrees, cinemas and movie theaters have been closed, festivals have been cancelled or postponed, and film releases have been moved to future dates or delayed indefinitely. As cinemas and movie theaters closed, the global box office dropped by billions of dollars, streaming became more popular, and the stock of film exhibitors dropped dramatically. Many blockbusters originally scheduled to be released between March and August were postponed or canceled around the world, with film productions also halted.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has shut down or delayed production of television programs in several countries.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has impacted religion in various ways, including the cancellation of the worship services of various faiths, the closure of Sunday Schools, as well as the cancellation of pilgrimages surrounding observances and festivals. Many churches, synagogues, mosques, and temples have offered worship through livestream amidst the pandemic. Relief wings of religious organisations have dispatched disinfection supplies, powered air purifying respirators, face shields, gloves, coronavirus nucleic acid detection reagents, ventilators, patient monitors, syringe pumps, infusion pumps, and food to affected areas. Other churches have offered free COVID-19 testing to the public. Adherents of many religions have gathered together to pray for an end to the COVID-19 pandemic, for those affected by it, as well as for wisdom for physicians and scientists to combat the disease. In the United States, President Donald Trump designated 15 March 2020 as a National Day of Prayer for "God’s healing hand to be placed on the people of our Nation".

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has caused many events around the world to be cancelled or postponed.

Politics and education

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic affected the political systems of multiple countries causing suspensions of legislative activities, isolation or deaths of multiple politicians, and rescheduling of elections due to fears of spreading the virus.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has affected educational systems worldwide, leading to the widespread closures of schools and universities.

Topics

Get involved!

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