The Second Crusade
(1145–1149) was the second major crusade
launched from Europe
, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa
the previous year. Edessa was the first of the Crusader states
to have been founded during the First Crusade
(1095–1099), and was the first to fall. The Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III
, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France
and Conrad III of Germany
, with help from a number of other important European nobles. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe and were somewhat hindered by Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus
; after crossing Byzantine
territory into Anatolia
, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks
. Louis and Conrad and the remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem
and, in 1148, participated in an ill-advised attack on Damascus
. The crusade in the east was a failure for the crusaders and a great victory for the Muslims
. It would ultimately lead to the fall of Jerusalem
and the Third Crusade
at the end of the 12th century.
The only success came outside of the Mediterranean, where Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, Scottish, and some German crusaders, on the way by ship to the Holy Land, fortuitously stopped and helped the Portuguese in the capture of Lisbon in 1147. Some of them, who had departed earlier, helped capture Santarém earlier in the same year. Later they also helped to conquer Sintra, Almada, Palmela and Setúbal, and were allowed to stay in the conquered lands, where they had offspring. Meanwhile, in Eastern Europe, the first of the Northern Crusades began with the intent of forcibly converting pagan tribes to Christianity, and these crusades would go on for centuries.
The Battle of Lepanto (Greek: Ναύπακτος, Naupaktos, pron. Náfpaktos; colloquial Greek: Έπαχτος, Épahtos; Turkish: İnebahtı) took place on 7 October 1571 when a galley fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of the Republic of Venice, the Papacy (under Pope Pius V), Spain (including Naples, Sicily and Sardinia), the Republic of Genoa, the Duchy of Savoy, the Knights Hospitaller and others, decisively defeated the main fleet of Ottoman war galleys.