Portal:Crusades/Bio Archive

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Usage[edit]

  1. Add a new Selected biography to the next available subpage.
  2. Update "max=" to new total for its {{Random portal component}} on the main page.

Selected biography list[edit]

Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/1

Cistercians like Baldwin at work.

Baldwin of Exeter (c. 1125 – November 19, 1190) was Archbishop of Canterbury between 1185 and 1190. Son of a clergyman, he studied both canon law and theology at Bologna and was tutor to Pope Eugenius III's nephew before returning to England to serve successive bishops of Exeter. After becoming a Cistercian monk, he was named abbot of his monastery before being elected to the episcopate at Worcester. Before becoming a bishop, he wrote theological works and sermons, some of which survive.

He impressed King Henry II of England while bishop, and the king insisted that Baldwin become archbishop. While archbishop, Baldwin quarrelled with his cathedral clergy over the founding of a church, which led to the imprisonment of the clergy in their cloister for over a year. He also spent some time in Wales with Gerald of Wales, preaching and raising money for the Third Crusade. After the coronation of King Richard the Lionheart of England, Baldwin was sent ahead by the king to the Holy Land, and became embroiled in the politics of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Baldwin died in the Holy Land while participating in the Crusade. His dispute with his clergy led some chroniclers to characterize him as worse for Christianity than Saladin.

...Archive/Noms

Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/2
Joshua Prawer November 22, 1917–April 30, 1990) was a notable Israeli historian and a scholar of the Crusades and Kingdom of Jerusalem. Prawer was part of a cadre of historians, including Claude Cahen and Jean Richard, who freed crusader studies from the old conception of crusader society as an exemplar of pure, unchanging feudalism that spontaneously emerged from the conquest. This view, which originated with feudal jurists in the thirteenth century, was held to by modern historians since the early thirties. Through the work of Prawer, particularly his two papers from the fifties, and his colleagues, crusader society began to be seen as dynamic, with the nobility gradually putting checks on the monarchy. The combined efforts of these historians led to a surge of new research into crusader society. Prawer's research extended to a wide variety of other aspects of the crusader states. Among the topics he addressed were land development projects and urban settlement, agriculture, the Italian quarters of port cities, the types of landed property, and legal issues in the Assises des Bourgeois.

One of Prawer's best known works is the Histoire du Royaume Latin de Jérusalem, which won him the Prix Gustave Schlumberger of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. The two-volume work presents the crusader states as a working immigrant society, and shows the importance of immigration and labor shortages. Another book by Prawer, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem: European Colonialism in the Middle Ages, which was intended for a larger audience, was more controversial. The 1980 book Crusader Institutions collected a number of his earlier publications and expanded upon them with revisions and new chapters. In his last years, he published a book on a topic of especial interest to him, The History of the Jews in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, which examined the tightly-knit isolated Jewish communities of the Levant, the Jewish philosophical feuds they engaged in, and their dreams of restoring Israel.

...Archive/Noms

Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/3

Canterbury Cathedral, seat of Hubert Walter

Hubert Walter (died July 13, 1205) was chief justiciar of England and archbishop of Canterbury in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. He owed his early advancement to his uncle Ranulf de Glanvill, who helped him become a clerk in the Exchequer. Walter served King Henry II of England in many different ways, not only in the financial administration. After an unsuccessful candidacy to the see of York, Walter was elected bishop of Salisbury shortly after the ascension of King Henry's son Richard I to the throne of England.

Walter accompanied King Richard on the Third Crusade, and was one of the principal persons involved in raising Richard's ransom after the king had been captured in Germany while returning home from Crusade. As a reward for his faithful service, Walter was selected to become the next Archbishop of Canterbury in 1193. Walter also served as justiciar for Richard until 1198. While justiciar, Walter was responsible for raising the money that Richard needed to prosecute his wars in France. He also set up a system of justice that involved the selection of four knights in each hundred to administer justice, a system that was the beginnings of justices of the peace. He also revived the dispute of his predecessor to set up a church in rivalry to Christ Church Priory in Canterbury, that was eventually settled by the pope ordering him to quit the plan.

With Richard's death in 1199 and the elevation of Richard's brother John to the throne, Hubert was named Lord Chancellor of England, an office he held until his death in 1205. Hubert had been instrumental in ensuring that John became king, and it was Hubert that crowned John. While chancellor, Hubert began the keeping of the Charter Roll, a record of all charters issued by the chancery. Walter also served John as a diplomat, undertaking a number of missions to France. Walter was not noted for holiness in life or learning, but historians have judged him one of the most outstanding governmental ministers in English History.

...Archive/Noms

Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/4

Manuscript miniature of Manuel I (part of double portrait with Maria of Antioch, Vatican Library, Rome)

Manuel I Komnenos, or Comnenus 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. Eager to restore his empire to its past glories as the superpower of the Mediterranean world, Manuel pursued an energetic and ambitious foreign policy. In the process he made alliances with the Pope and the resurgent west, invaded Italy, successfully handled the passage of the dangerous Second Crusade through his empire, and established a Byzantine protectorate over the Crusader kingdoms of Outremer. Facing Muslim advances in the Holy Land, he made common cause with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and participated in a combined invasion of Fatimid Egypt. Manuel reshaped the political maps of the Balkans and the east Mediterranean, placing the kingdoms of Hungary and Outremer under Byzantine hegemony and campaigning aggressively against his neighbours both in the west and in the east. However, towards the end of his reign Manuel's achievements in the east were compromised by a serious defeat at Myriokephalon, which in large part resulted from his arrogance in attacking a well-defended Seljuk position.

Called Megas, translated as "the Great", by the Greeks, Manuel is known to have inspired intense loyalty in those who served him. He also appears as the hero of a history written by his secretary, John Kinnamos, in which every virtue is attributed to him. Manuel, who was influenced by his contact with western Crusaders, enjoyed the reputation of "the most blessed emperor of Constantinople" in parts of the Latin world as well. Modern historians, however, have been less enthusiastic about him. Some of them assert that the great power he wielded was not his own personal achievement, but that of the dynasty he represented; they also argue Byzantine imperial power declined so rapidly after Manuel's death that it is only natural to look for the causes of this decline in his reign.

...Archive/Noms

Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/5

John III Sobieski

John III Sobieski, (Polish: Jan III Sobieski) (17 August 1629 - 17 June 1696) was one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from 1674 until his death King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Sobieski's 22-year-reign was marked by a period of the Commonwealth's stabilisation, much needed after the turmoil of the Deluge and Chmielnicki's Uprising. Popular among his subjects, he was also a brilliant military commander, most famous for the victory over the Turks in the 1683 Battle of Vienna. For his victories over the Ottoman Empire, he was dubbed by the Turks the "Lion of Lechistan."Jan Sobieski was born 1629 in Olesko, a small town near Lwów (modern Lviv, Ukraine), to a notable noble family de Sobieszyn Sobieski of Clan Janina. His father, Jakub Sobieski, was the Palatine of Ruthenia and Castellan of Kraków; his mother, Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz was a granddaughter of Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski. After graduating from the Nowodworski College in Kraków, young Jan Sobieski graduated from the philosophical faculty of the Jagiellonian University. After finishing his studies, together with his brother Marek Sobieski (1628-1652), Jan left for western Europe, where he spent more than two years travelling. During that time he learned French, German and Italian, in addition to Latin. This proved to be vital during his later military career.

...Archive/Noms

Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/6

Charles Martel

Charles "The Hammer" Martel (Latin: Carolus Martellus, English: Charles "the Hammer") (ca. 688 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace and ruled the Franks in the name of a titular King. Late in his reign he proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother with the façade of a King) and by any name was de facto ruler of the Frankish Realms. In 739 he was offered an office of Roman consul by the Pope, which he rejected [1] possibly not to conflict with Theodatus Ursus who already occupied the office by appointment of the Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian. He expanded his rule over all three of the Frankish kingdoms: Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy. Martel was born in Herstal, in present-day Belgium, the illegitimate son of Pippin the Middle and his concubine Alpaida (or Chalpaida).[2] He was described by Louis Gustave and Charles Strauss in their book "Moslem and Frank; or, Charles Martel and the rescue of Europe" as a tall, powerfully built man, who was more agile than his size would lead men to believe.

...Archive/Noms

Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/7

James I of Aragon

James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon on all sides: into Valencia to the south, Languedoc to the north, and the Balearic Islands to the east. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia.

As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the Spanish kings. James compiled the Libre del Consulat de Mar,[3] which governed maritime trade and helped establish Catalan supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He made Catalan the official language of his domains,[4] sponsored Catalan literature and even wrote a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets.

...Archive/Noms

Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/8

Sancho VII of Navarre

Sancho VII of Navarre (or Sánchez, 1157[5] – 7 April 1234), called the Strong (el Fuerte in Spanish, Santxo Azkarra in Basque) or the Prudent, was the King of Navarre from 1194 to his death. His retirement at the end of his life has given rise to the alternate nickname el Encerrado or "the Retired."

He was probably the eldest child of Sancho VI and Sancha, daughter of Alfonso VII of León, born soon after their marriage, probably in Tudela, their usual residence. He was the last legitimate male-line descendant of the first two dynasties of kings of Navarre, the Houses of Íñiguez and Jiménez. He was the elder brother of Berengaria, who was married to Richard I of England in 1191 on the island of Cyprus on the way to the Holy Land for the Third Crusade. Sancho and Richard were reputed to have been good friends and close allies, even before the marriage brought them together. The French took advantage of Richard's captivity in Germany and captured certain key fortresses of the Angevin dominions including Loches. When Richard returned to his continental lands in 1194, the knights of Sancho were besieging the castle for him. As soon as Richard arrived though, Sancho was forced to return to Navarre at the news of the death of his father. He was crowned in Pamplona on 15 August.

He arrived late at the Battle of Alarcos in 1195 and thus ruined good relations with the Castilian sovereign Alfonso VIII. The ensuing confrontation resulted in Sancho devastating Soria and Almazán and Alfonso accepted the Peace of Tarazona.

Sancho made expeditions against Murcia and Andalusia, and, between 1198 and 1200, he campaigned in Africa, probably in the service of the Almohads, whose help he wanted against Castile. Taking advantage of his absence, Alfonso VIII of Castile and Peter II of Aragon invaded Navarre, which lost the provinces of Álava, Guipúzcoa, and Vizcaya to Castile. These conquests were subsequently confirmed by the Treaty of Guadalajara (1207).

...Archive/Noms

Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/9

Vlad III the Impaler

Vlad III the Impaler, Prince of Wallachia called "Vlad the Impaler" (that is, Vlad Ţepeş, Romanian pronunciation: [ˈtsepeʃ] in Romanian; also known as Vlad Dracula or simply Dracula, in Romanian Drăculea; 1431 – December 1476), was a Wallachian (southern Romania) voivode. His three reigns were in 1448, 1456–1462, and 1476. Vlad the Impaler is known for the exceedingly cruel punishments he imposed during his reign. In the English-speaking world, Vlad III is best known for inspiring the name of the eponymous vampire in Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula.[6]

As prince, Vlad maintained an independent policy in relation to the Ottoman Empire[7] and a defender of Wallachia against Ottoman expansionism.

...Archive/Noms

Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/10

John Hunyadi

John Hunyadi (Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu de Hunedoara, Slovak: Ján Huňady, Croatian: Сибињанин Јанко / Sibinjanin Janko; c. 1387[8] – 11 August 1456), nicknamed The White Knight[9][10][11] or White Knight of Hungary[12][13]) depending on sources</ref> was a Hungarian general (1444–46) and Regent-Governor (1446–53) of the Kingdom of Hungary.[14].

He is widely celebrated in Hungarian history as its most prominent, successful and powerful generalissimo who promoted a revision of dated military doctrine, as such a recognizably outstanding and iconic military opponent of the Ottoman Empire; in a sweeping scope of European military history was undoubtedly the pre-eminent strategist and tactician of the 15th century in Christendom.[14] He was also a Voivode of Transylvania (1441–46), the patriarch of the Hunyadi family, and father of the most renowned king in Hungarian history, King Matthias Corvinus.

Hunyadi's unique personal martial genius, prowess and wherewithal to prosecute preventive and very muscular aggressive crusading warfare policies that weld together many Christian nationalities against the onslaught of the vastly numerically superior Ottoman Moslem forces achieved a state of integrity, stalemate and détente for the Hungarian Kingdom and the many European states that lay to her periphery.

John Hunyadi's aim to re-organize the military ancien régime constituents of Hungary from strictly a feudal-based aristocratic levy into an efficient, professional, formidable standing army would bring reform to European military components everywhere in a 'post-Roman' European war-making society that his successor and son, King Matthias Corvinus would bring to its ultimate culmination with its ruthless Black Army of Hungary.

John Hunyadi is often considered the bellwether of the European "post-Roman" professional "standing army". Hunyadi is mostly renowned as one of the greatest medieval field commanders of all time, his brilliant and prodigous overthrow of Mehmed II at the Siege of Belgrade in 1456 against overpowering odds is regarded as a seminal piece of European military history as "Having decided the fate of Christendom", and is as decisive a macro-significant event in European historiography as the 732 Battle of Tours and the Battle of Vienna in 1683.

To this very day worldwide, every Catholic and older Protestant churches tolling of church bells at noon means a commemoration of John Hunyadi's very historic victory over the Ottomans in 1456.

...Archive/Noms

Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/11

John of Austria

John of Austria (24 February[15], 1547 - 1 October 1578), in English traditionally known as Don John of Austria, and in Spanish as Don Juan de Austria

[16], was an illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He became a military leader in the service of his half-brother, Philip of Spain and is best known for his naval victory at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

...Archive/Noms

Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/12
Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/12


Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/13
Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/13


Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/14
Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/14


Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/15
Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/15


Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/16
Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/16


Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/17
Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/17


Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/18
Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/18


Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/19
Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/19


Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/20
Portal:Crusades/Selected biography/20

Nominations[edit]

Feel free to add Featured, or GA biographies to the above list. Other Crusade-related biographies may be nominated here.

Current nominations[edit]

Choose the next "Selected article":


Sigurd I of Norway[edit]

  • Reason: Sigurd was the first European king to ever go on crusade to the Holy Land, and not one battle during the crusade was lost.
  • Date to be selected: soon?
  • 129.177.76.222 (talk) 17:01, 23 February 2011 (UTC)