Portal:Daman and Diu

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Daman and Diu

Flag of Daman and Diu
Lesser coat of arms of Portuguese India
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Daman and Diu (Gujarati: દમણ અને દિવ, Marathi: दमण आणि दीव, Portuguese: Damão e Diu) is a union territory in India.

For over 450 years, these coastal enclaves on the Arabian Sea coast were part of Portuguese India, along with Goa and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Goa, Daman, and Diu were incorporated into the Republic of India on December 19, 1961, by military conquest; Portugal did not recognize the Indian annexation of these territories until 1974. Goa, Daman, and Diu were administered as part of a single union territory until 1987, when Goa was granted statehood, leaving Daman and Diu as a separate union territory; each enclave constitutes one of the union territory's two districts.

Gujarati and Marathi are the official[1] and main languages[2] [3]. The use of Portuguese goes on declining because it is no longer official nor taught at school, though a number of elder people can still understand it, some even preferring it for discourse at home. In addition to standard Portuguese, there are two also shrinking Portuguese-based creole languages in Daman (known as Língua da Casa, "Home Language") and Diu (Língua dos Velhos, "Elders' Language"). English is increasingly accepted for official purposes.

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St. Paul's Church in Diu

Portuguese India (Portuguese: Índia Portuguesa or Estado da Índia) was the aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India. At the time of British India's independence in 1947, Portuguese India included a number of enclaves on India's western coast, including Goa proper, as well as the coastal enclaves of Daman (Port: Damão) and Diu, and the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, which lie inland from Daman. The territories of Portuguese India were sometimes referred to collectively as Goa.

The first Portuguese encounter with India was on May 20, 1498 when Vasco da Gama landed at Calicut (now known as Kozhikode) in the present-day Indian state of Kerala . Over the objections of Arab merchants, Gama secured an ambiguous letter of concession for trading rights from the Zamorin, Calicut's local ruler, but had to sail off without warning after the Zamorin insisted on his leaving behind all his goods as collateral. Gama kept his goods, but left behind a few Portuguese with orders to start a trading post.

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Vasco da gama

Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈvaʃku dɐ ˈɡɐmɐ]) (Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, ca. either 1460 or 1469 – December 24, 1524 in Kochi, India) was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the European Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India.

Vasco da Gama was probably born in either 1460[4] or 1469,[5] in Sines, on the southwest coast of Portugal, probably in a house near the church of Nossa Senhora das Salas. Sines, one of the few seaports on the Alentejo coast, consisted of little more than a cluster of whitewashed, red-tiled cottages, tenanted chiefly by fisherfolk.

Vasco da Gama's father was Estêvão da Gama. In the 1460s he was a knight in the household of the Duke of Viseu, Dom Fernando.[6] Dom Fernando appointed him Alcaide-Mór or Civil Governor of Sines and enabled him to receive a small revenue from taxes on soap making in Estremoz.

Estêvão da Gama was married to Dona Isabel Sodré, who was the daughter of João Sodré (also known as João de Resende). Sodré, who was of English descent, had links to the household of Prince Diogo, Duke of Viseu, son of king Edward I of Portugal and governor of the military Order of Christ.[7]

Little is known of Vasco da Gama's early life. It has been suggested by the Portuguese historian Teixeira de Aragão that he studied at the inland town of Évora, which is where he may have learned mathematics and navigation. It is evident that Gama knew astronomy well, and it is possible that he may have studied under the astronomer Abraham Zacuto.[8]

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  1. ^ The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987
  2. ^ Tourism of India: Daman and Diu
  3. ^ Daman & Diu
  4. ^ Sourcebook: Vasco da Gama: Round Africa to India, 1497–1498 CE]. Retrieved June 27, 2007
  5. ^ [ Vasco da Gama]. Retrieved June 27, 2007
  6. ^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed. p. 27. ISBN 0131933884. 
  7. ^ Subrahmanyam 1997, p.61
  8. ^ Subrahmanyam 1997, p.62