The Business Portal
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit."
Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates. The proprietor is personally taxed on all income from the business.
The term is also often used colloquially (but not by lawyers or by public officials) to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner. (Full article...)
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith, published on March 9, 1776 during the Scottish Enlightenment. It is a clearly written account of political economy at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, and is widely considered to be the first modern work in the field of economics. The work is also the first comprehensive defense of free market policies. It is broken down into five books between two volumes. The Wealth of Nations was written for the average educated individual of the 18th century rather than for specialists and mathematicians. There are three main concepts that Smith expands upon in this work that form the foundation of free market economics: The Division of Labor, The Pursuit of Self Interest, and The Freedom of Trade.
The Wealth of Nations was published in 1776, during the Age of Enlightenment. It influenced not only authors and economists, but governments and organisations. For example, Alexander Hamilton was influenced in part by The Wealth of Nations to write his Report on Manufactures, in which he argued against many of Smith's policies. Interestingly, Hamilton based much of this report on the ideas of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, and it was, in part, to Colbert's ideas that Smith wished to respond with The Wealth of Nations. Many other authors were influenced by the book and used it as a starting point in their own work, including Jean-Baptiste Say, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus and, later, Karl Marx and Ludwig von Mises. The Russian national poet Aleksandr Pushkin refers to The Wealth of Nations in his 1833 verse-novel Eugene Onegin.
Irrespective of historical influence, however, The Wealth of Nations represented a clear leap forward in the field of economics, similar to Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica for physics or Antoine Lavoisier's Traité Élémentaire de Chimie for chemistry. The Wealth of Nations is also important in a Scottish linguistic context on account of the fact the book is written in English and not in Scots Language, a somewhat rare occurrence for the time.
Smith addresses in The Wealth of Nations a problem that was torturing the best economic minds of his day. This problem was rooted in the means by which objects are valued. The two predominant theories of value in Smith's time were the so-called "Practical Theory of Value" and the labor theory of value, as delineated later by David Ricardo.
The 1933 double eagle is a United States 20-dollar gold coin. Although 445,500 specimens of this Saint-Gaudens double eagle were minted in 1933 none were ever officially circulated and all but two were melted down. Supposedly, 20 found their way into the hands of collectors, but 19 of these were subsequently seized or voluntarily turned in to the Secret Service, who destroyed nine of them, making this one of the world's rarest coins. Five are still missing out of the 20.
"At Toyota, we began to think about how to install an autonomic nervous system in our own rapidly growing business organization. In our production plant, an autonomic nerve means making judgments autonomously at the lowest possible level; for example, when to stop production, what sequence to follow in making parts, or when overtime is necessary to produce the required amount.
These discussions can be made by factory workers themselves, without having to consult the production control or engineering departments that correspond to the brain in the human body. The plant should be a place where such judgments can be made by workers autonomously.
In Toyota's case, I believe this autonomic nervous system grew as the idea of just-in-time penetrated broadly and deeply into the production field, and as adherence to the rules increased through the use of kanban. As I thought about the business organization and the autonomic nerves in the human body, the concept began to interconnect, overlap, and stir my imagination."
- —Taiichi Ohno, Toyota Production System, English edition of 1988
The following are images from various business-related articles on Wikipedia.
Steve Jobs (pictured in 2010) led the introduction of many innovations in the computer, smartphone and digital music industries
Apple co-founder and longtime leader
Student organizers from the Green Club at Newcomb College Institute formed a social entrepreneurship organization in 2010.
Melanne Verveer greets participants in an African Women's Entrepreneurship Program at the State Department in Washington, D.C.
In 2012, Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women's Issues
Time required to start a business in 2017
A vegetable seller in a rural Sri Lankan village
Emil Jellinek-Mercedes (1853–1918), here at the steering wheel of his Phoenix Double-Phaeton, was a European entrepreneur who helped design the first modern car
Dell Women's Entrepreneur Network event in New York City
bond issued by the Dutch East India Company (VOC), dating from 1623, for the amount of 2,400 florins
Town Talk (1858) satirizing the 'monster' joint-stock economy that came into being after the Joint Stock Companies Act 1844.
"Jack and the Giant Joint-Stock", a cartoon in
On this day in Business history...
Did you know
- ...that the melting and export of cents and nickels can be punished with a fine of up to $10,000 and/or imprisoned for a maximum of five years?
- ... that the GDP deflator (implicit price deflator for GDP) is a price index measuring changes in prices of all new, domestically produced, final goods and services in an economy.
Things you can do
Urgent and important articles are bold
Here are some tasks awaiting attention:
- Article requests : Abstract Fees, IFRS for small and medium entities, more...
- Assess : assess these pages
- Cleanup : Agricultural productivity, Bank fraud, Billpoint, Economic nationalism, Ethical implications in contracts, Financial adviser, Futures exchange, Gulf rupee, Pricing, Self insurance, Serfdom, Space elevator economics, Valuation, more...
- Disambiguation : cleanup links to dab pages
- Expand : Tom Basso, Clintonomics, Toby Crabel, Diversification (finance), Economy of Brazil, European Cooperative Society, Heavy industry, Larry Hite, Insourcing, Paul Tudor Jones, Planning Commission, Linda Bradford Raschke, Sales pitch, Singapore television channels, David Tepper, Monroe Trout, Tan Yu, Digital Services Act
- Infobox : add to business articles needing infoboxes
- Maintain : Portal:Business and economics
- Merge : Business Analysis, Corporate performance management, Economic growth, Excess reserves, Liberian Companies, National Association of Insurance Commissioners, Permanent war economy, more...
- NPOV : Economic interventionism, Energy economics, Rage Software Limited, more...
- Photo : add to requested photographs of business & economic topics and requested photographs of business and economics people
- Stubs : Bioeconomics, Debt compliance, Double auction, Kitchen sink regression, Single-entry accounting system, War economy, Workforce, more...
- Verify : add sources to Unreferenced BLPs
- Wikify : Economy of GDR, Investment specific technological progress, Marketization, Mediobanca, more...
- Other : Projects - Accounting, Business, Companies, Cooperatives, Deletion sorting, Economics, Finance & Investment, Game theory, International development, Numismatics, Private Equity, Retailing, Shopping Centers, Taxation, Trade, more...