England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. It is the largest country of the British Isles.
The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Paleolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation.
England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north (for example, the Lake District and Pennines) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills). The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and, prior to Brexit, the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.
The Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland (through another Act of Union) to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Read more...
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The Premier League, often referred to outside England as the English Premier League or the EPL, is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League (EFL). Seasons run from August to May with each team playing 38 matches (playing all 19 other teams both home and away). Most games are played on Saturday and Sunday afternoons.
The competition was founded as the FA Premier League on 20 February 1992 following the decision of clubs in the Football League First Division
to break away from the Football League
, founded in 1888, and take advantage of a lucrative television rights deal. The deal was worth around £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with Sky
and BT Group
securing the domestic rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games respectively. The league is a corporation in which the member clubs act as shareholders, and generates €2.2 billion per year in domestic and international television rights. Clubs were apportioned central payment revenues of £2.4 billion in 2016–17, with a further £343 million in solidarity payments
to English Football League (EFL) clubs. Read more...
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London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea. London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core and financial centre − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that closely follow its medieval limits. The adjacent City of Westminster is an Inner London borough and has for centuries been the location of much of the national government. Thirty one additional boroughs north and south of the river also comprise modern London. London is governed by the mayor of London and the London Assembly.
London is one of the world's most important global cities
and has been called the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment-friendly, and most-popular-for-work city. It exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation. London ranks 26th out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres
and has either the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP
. It is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system
as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment
destination, hosting more international retailers
than any other city. As of 2020, London has the second-highest number of billionaires
of any city in Europe, after Moscow
. In 2019, London had the highest number of ultra high-net-worth individuals
in Europe. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe, and London is home to highly ranked institutions such as Imperial College London
and applied sciences
, and the London School of Economics
in social sciences
. In 2012
, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games
. Read more...
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In the news
- 21 October 2020 – COVID-19 pandemic
- COVID-19 pandemic in England, COVID-19 tier regulations in England
- 15 October 2020 – COVID-19 pandemic
- COVID-19 pandemic in England, COVID-19 tier regulations in England
- Health Secretary Matt Hancock announces that London, Essex, York, and other areas will be put under tier 2 restrictions on October 17, which means that different households will be banned from mixing indoors, including inside homes, pubs, and restaurants, and people will also be told to avoid public transport and non-essential travel. (BBC) (ABC Australia)
- 12 October 2020 – COVID-19 pandemic
- COVID-19 pandemic in England
- Prime Minister Boris Johnson unveils a new three-tier restrictions system aimed to simplify the range of different restrictions already in place across various parts of England. The Local COVID Alert Levels ("medium", "high", and "very high") will be implemented in different areas depending on local infection rates. (Sky News)
- 5 October 2020 – United Kingdom–Venezuela relations, Venezuelan presidential crisis
- The Court of Appeals for England and Wales overturns a ruling earlier this year by the High Court of Justice that stated the government of Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro did not have the right to access the Central Bank of Venezuela's gold, worth more than US$1.8 billion, currently stored by the Bank of England due to the UK government's recognition of oppositional leader Juan Guaidó as the actual president. (The Guardian)
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