Portal:Fascism/Selected article

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Selected articles list[edit]

Portal:Fascism/Selected article/1

Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, Captain of the Iron Guard

Corneliu Zelea Codreanu (born Corneliu Zelinski and commonly known as Corneliu Codreanu; September 13, 1899 – November 30, 1938) was a Romanian politician of the far right, the founder and charismatic leader of the Iron Guard or the Legion of the Archangel Michael (also known as the Legionary Movement), an ultra-nationalist and violently antisemitic organization active throughout most of the interwar period. Generally seen as the main variety of local fascism, and noted for its mystical and Romanian Orthodox-inspired revolutionary message, it grew into an important actor on the Romanian political stage, coming into conflict with the political establishment and the democratic forces, and often resorting to terrorism. The Legionaries traditionally referred to Codreanu as Căpitanul ("The Captain"), and he held absolute authority over the organization until his death. Following Codreanu's instructions, the Legion carried out assassinations of politicians it viewed as corrupt. Codreanu advocated Romania's adherence to a military and political alliance with Nazi Germany. Codreanu's views influenced the modern far right. Groups claiming him as a forerunner include Noua Dreaptă and other Romanian successors of the Iron Guard, the International Third Position, and various neofascist organizations in Italy and other parts of Europe.

Portal:Fascism/Selected article/2

Adolf Hitler, writer of "Mein Kampf", in the early 1920s

Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle) is a book by Adolf Hitler (pictured). It combines elements of autobiography, an exposition of Hitler's political ideology, and a history of the early Nazi movement. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926. Hitler began the dictation of the book while imprisoned for the Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923. Though Hitler received many visitors earlier on, he soon devoted himself entirely to the book. Once released from prison on 20 December 1924, Hitler moved back to the picturesque mountainous climes of the Obersalzberg. While he was in power (1933–45), Mein Kampf became available in three common editions: the first, the Volksausgabe or People's Edition; the Hochzeitsausgabe, or Wedding Edition, and; the Tornister-Ausgabe. A special edition, known as the Jubiläumsausgabe, or Anniversary Issue, was published in 1939 in honor of Hitler's 50th birthday. The book could also be purchased as a two-volume set during Hitler's reign, and was available in soft cover and hardcover. Mein Kampf is known as a work of Nazi propaganda that promotes nationalism, militarism, anticommunism, and anti-Semitism, and today is censored in many countries.

Portal:Fascism/Selected article/3
Brazilian Integralism (Portuguese: Integralismo brasileiro) was a Brazilian political movement created in October 1932. Founded and led by Plínio Salgado, a literary figure who was relatively famous during the 1922 Modern Art Week, the movement had adopted some characteristics of European mass movements of those times, specifically of the Italian fascism, but differentiating itself from some forms of fascism in that Salgado did not preach racism (they even had as their slogan: "Union of all races and all people"). The name of the party was Ação Integralista Brasileira (AIB, Brazilian Integralist Action); the reference to Integralism mirrored the choice of name for a traditionalist movement in Portugal, Integralismo Lusitano. For its symbol, the AIB used a flag with a white disk on a royal blue background, with an uppercase sigma (Σ) in its center.

Portal:Fascism/Selected article/4

António de Oliveira Salazar

António de Oliveira Salazar (April 28, 1889—July 27, 1970) was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He headed the "Estado Novo" (literally, New State) which advocated authoritarianism based on Roman Catholic social doctrine and corporatism as an economic system. Originally a professor of political economics at the University of Coimbra he became finance minister in 1928 before becoming Prime Minister. During World War II he kept Portugal neutral although he provided aid to the Allies by letting them use an island in the Azores as a military base.

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The British National Party (BNP) is a far-right and whites-only political party in the United Kingdom. The party is not represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. According to its constitution, the BNP is "committed to stemming and reversing the tide of non-white immigration and to restoring, by legal changes, negotiation and consent the overwhelmingly white makeup of the British population that existed in Britain prior to 1948." The BNP also proposes "firm but voluntary incentives for immigrants and their descendants to return home." The BNP asserts that there are biological racial differences that determine the behaviour and character of individuals of different races, although it also claims that it does not regard whites as superior to other ethnic groups. The party claims that preference for one's own ethnicity is a part of human nature. Historically, under John Tyndall's leadership, the BNP was overtly anti-Semitic; however, under the leadership of Nick Griffin the party has members with Jewish ancestry and has tried to win Jewish votes. The party has said that it does not consider the Hindu or Sikh religions to have a significantly detrimental or threatening effect, although it does not accept practising Sikhs or Hindus as culturally or ethnically British.

Portal:Fascism/Selected article/6
After German doctors became the first to identify the link between smoking and lung cancer, the anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany became the first public anti-smoking campaign in modern history. Anti-tobacco movements grew in many nations from the beginning of the 20th century, but these had little success, except in Germany, where the campaign was supported by the government after the Nazis came to power. It was the most powerful anti-smoking movement in the world during the 1930s and early 1940s. The National Socialist leadership condemned tobacco consumption. Research on smoking and its effects on health thrived under Nazi rule and was the most important of its type at that time. The Nazi anti-tobacco campaign included banning smoking in trams, buses and city trains, promoting health education, limiting cigarette rations in the Wehrmacht, organizing medical lectures for soldiers, and raising the tobacco tax. The National Socialists also imposed restrictions on tobacco advertising and smoking in public spaces, and regulated restaurants and coffeehouses. The anti-tobacco movement did not have much effect in the early years of the Nazi regime and tobacco use increased between 1933 and 1939, but smoking by military personnel declined from 1939 to 1945.

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Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a propaganda film made by Leni Riefenstahl. It chronicles the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg. The film contains excerpts from speeches given by various Nazi leaders at the Congress, including portions of speeches by Adolf Hitler, interspersed with footage of massed party members. Hitler commissioned the film and served as an unofficial executive producer; his name appears in the opening titles. The overriding theme of the film is the return of Germany as a great power, with Hitler as the True German Leader who will bring glory to the nation. Triumph of the Will was released in 1935 and rapidly became one of the better-known examples of propaganda in film history. Riefenstahl's techniques, such as moving cameras, the use of telephoto lenses to create a distorted perspective, aerial photography, and revolutionary approach to the use of music and cinematography, have earned Triumph recognition as one of the greatest films in history. Riefenstahl won several awards, not only in Germany but also in the United States, France, Sweden, and other countries. The film was popular in the Third Reich and elsewhere, and has continued to influence movies, documentaries, and commercials to this day.

Portal:Fascism/Selected article/8

Albert Speer at the Nuremberg trials 1946

Albert Speer /ˈʃpɛæ/ (born Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer; March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for part of World War II, Minister of Armaments and War Production for the Third Reich. Speer was Adolf Hitler's chief architect before assuming ministerial office. He designed and constructed a number of structures, including the Reich Chancellery and the Zeppelinfeld stadium in Nuremberg where Party rallies were held. Speer accepted responsibility at the Nuremberg trials and in his memoirs for crimes of the Nazi regime and was sentenced to twenty years imprisonment, most of which he served in Spandau Prison in West Berlin. After his release, Speer published two bestselling autobiographical works, Inside the Third Reich and Spandau: The Secret Diaries.

Portal:Fascism/Selected article/9
Otto Moritz Walter Model (German pronunciation: [ˈmoːdəl]) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his close association with Adolf Hitler and Nazism. He has been called the Wehrmacht's best defensive tactician. Although he was a hard-driving, aggressive panzer commander early in the war, Model became best known as a practitioner of attrition warfare. His tenacious style of fighting and aggressive personality won him plaudits from Hitler, who considered him his best commander and repeatedly tasked him with retrieving desperate situations. However, the relationship had broken down by the end of the war, after Model was defeated at the Battle of the Bulge.

Portal:Fascism/Selected article/10
The Night of the Long Knives (German: About this sound Nacht der langen Messer ) or "Operation Hummingbird", was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany between June 30 and July 2, 1934, when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political executions, most of those killed being members of the Sturmabteilung (SA), the paramilitary Brownshirts. Adolf Hitler moved against the SA and its leader, Ernst Röhm, because he saw the independence of the SA and the penchant of its members for street violence as a direct threat to his power. Hitler also wanted to conciliate leaders of the Reichswehr, the official German military. They both feared and despised the SA and in particular feared Röhm's ambition to absorb the Reichswehr into the SA under his own leadership. Finally, Hitler used the purge to attack or eliminate critics of his regime, especially those loyal to Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen, and to settle scores with old enemies.


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