Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that arose from obscure origins in the late 16th to early 17th century. Freemasonry now exists in various forms all over the world, with a membership estimated at around 5 million, with around 480,000 in England, Scotland and Ireland alone, and just under two million in the United States. The various forms all share moral and metaphysical ideals, which include, in most cases, a constitutional declaration of belief in a Supreme Being.
The fraternity is administratively organised into Grand Lodges (or sometimes Orients), each of which governs its own jurisdiction, which consists of subordinate (or constituent) Lodges. Grand Lodges recognise each other through a process of landmarks and regularity. There are also appendant bodies, which are organisations related to the main branch of Freemasonry, but with their own independent administration.
There are several affiliated organisations tied to Freemasonry: those that offer "other degrees" (i.e. Scottish Rite), and those who are relatives of Freemasons but do not qualify for membership in a lodge (i.e. Order of the Eastern Star and Job's Daughters).
The History of Freemasonry
studies the development, evolution and events of the fraternal organisation
known as Freemasonry
. This history is generally separated into two time periods: before and after the formation of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717. Before this time, the facts and origins of Freemasonry are not absolutely known and are therefore frequently explained by theories or legends. After the formation of the Grand Lodge of England, the history of Freemasonry is extremely well-documented and can be traced through the creation of hundreds of Grand Lodges that spread rapidly worldwide.
The origin of Freemasonry has variously been attributed to: King Solomon and the construction of the Temple at Jerusalem, Euclid or Pythagoras, Moses, the Essenes, the Culdees, the Druids, the Gypsies, or the Rosicrucians, not to mention the intellectual descendants of Noah. Some of the more popular theories include Freemasonry being an offshoot of the ancient mystery schools, or that it is an institutional outgrowth of the medieval guilds of stonemasons, or that it is a direct descendant of the "Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem" (the Knights Templar).
Early operative Freemasons, unlike virtually all Europeans except the Clergy, were Free - not bound to the land on which they were born.
Photo credit: Arpingstone
Freemasons’ Hall in Great Queen Street, London, England.
The Hall is the headquarters of the United Grand Lodge of England and a meeting place for the Lodges in the London area. The art deco building was built between 1927 and 1933 as a memorial to the 3225 Freemasons who died on active service in the First World War. Initially known as the Masonic Peace Memorial, the name was changed to Freemasons' Hall at the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939..
(January 17 1706 [O.S.
January 6, 1705] – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers
of the United States of America
. A noted polymath
, Franklin was a leading author
, political theorist
, civic activist
. As a scientist he was a major figure in the Enlightenment
and the history of physics
for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity
. He invented the lightning rod
, the Franklin stove
, a carriage odometer
, and a musical instrument
. He formed both the first public lending library
in America and first fire department
in Pennsylvania. He was an early proponent of colonial unity
and as a political writer and activist he, more than anyone, invented the idea of an American nation and as a diplomat during the American Revolution
, he secured the French alliance
that helped to make independence possible.
Franklin is credited as being foundational to the roots of American values and character, a marriage of the practical and democratic Puritan values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment. In the words of Henry Steele Commager, "In Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat." To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin, "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."
- "The grand object of Masonry is to promote the happiness of the human race." - George Washington
- “Freemasonry is an institution calculated to benefit mankind.” - Andrew Jackson
- "Masonic labor is purely a labor of love. He who seeks to draw Masonic wages in gold and silver will be disappointed. The wages of a Mason are earned and paid in their dealings with one another; sympathy that begets sympathy, kindness begets kindness, helpfulness begets helpfulness, and these are the wages of a Mason." - Benjamin Franklin