Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. It is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period (1500 to 500 BCE), and flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India.
Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology, shared textual resources, and pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Śruti ("heard") and Smṛti ("remembered"). These texts discuss theology, philosophy, mythology, Vedic yajna, Yoga, agamic rituals, and temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and the Upanishads, the Puranas, the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, and the Āgamas. Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is also a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition.
) is a minor character from the Hindu epic
. The son of Pandava
(one of the main heroes of the Mahabharata) and the Naga
, Iravan is the central god of the cult of Kuttantavar and plays a major role in the cult of Draupadi
. Both these cults are of South Indian
origin, from a region of the country where he is worshipped as a village deity
. The Mahabharata portrays Iravan as dying a heroic death in the 18-day Kurukshetra War
, the epic's main subject. However, the South Indian cults have a supplementary tradition of honouring Iravan's self-sacrifice to the goddess Kali
to ensure her favour and the victory of the Pandavas in the war. The South Indian cult focus on three boons granted to Iravan by the god Krishna
in honour of this self-sacrifice. Iravan is also a patron god of well-known Indian transgender
communities called Ali
. In Koovagam
, Tamil Nadu
, an 18-day festival holds a ceremonial marriage of Iravan to Ali
s and male villagers and followed then by their "widowhood" after ritual re-enactment of Iravan's sacrifice. Iravan is also known in Indonesia. Independent Javanese
traditions present a dramatic marriage of Irawan to Titisari, daughter of Krishna, and a death resulting from a case of mistaken identity.
Swami Vivekananda was a key figure in introducing Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and the United States, raising interfaith awareness and making Hinduism a world religion.
Babur visits a Hindu temple.
Basic Hindu symbols: Shatkona, Padma, and Swastika.
A Ganesha-centric Panchayatana ("five deities", from the Smarta tradition): Ganesha (centre) with Shiva (top left), Parvati (top right), Vishnu (bottom left) and Surya (bottom right). All these deities also have separate sects dedicated to them.
A statue of Shiva in yogic meditation
A goshala or cow shelter at Guntur
Hinduism – Percentage by country
The Hindu deity Ganesha is sometimes linked to the symbol Om.
AUM, a stylised letter of Devanagari script, used as a religious symbol in Hinduism
The festival of lights, Diwali, is celebrated by Hindus all over the world.
A wedding is the most extensive personal ritual an adult Hindu undertakes in his or her life. A typical Hindu wedding is solemnized before Vedic fire ritual (shown).
In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagavad Gita
in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial.
Things you can do