The Human Spaceflight Portal
||Human spaceflight is a spaceflight with a human crew, currently being conducted as part of the Russian Soyuz programme, American Space Shuttle program and Chinese Shenzhou program, in addition to the long-term International Space Station.
Human spaceflight is conducted as part of space exploration, the endeavour to reach, explore, and exploit the space outside the Earth's atmosphere, and also in commercial activities, such as space tourism. The first human spaceflight, Vostok 1, was conducted in 1961. Since then, more than 500 people have travelled past the Kármán line, the official edge of space, in support of various Earth orbital missions, space station expeditions, spacewalks and missions to the Moon.
The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster
occurred on January 28, 1986, when Space Shuttle Challenger
broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the deaths of its seven crew members. The spacecraft
disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean
, off the coast of central Florida
, United States, at 11:39 a.m. EST
Disintegration of the entire vehicle began after an O-ring seal in its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed at liftoff. The O-ring failure caused a breach in the SRB joint it sealed, allowing pressurized hot gas from within the solid rocket motor to reach the outside and impinge upon the adjacent SRB attachment hardware and external fuel tank. This led to the separation of the right-hand SRB's aft attachment and the structural failure of the external tank. Aerodynamic forces promptly broke up the orbiter.
The crew compartment and many other vehicle fragments were eventually recovered from the ocean floor after a lengthy search and recovery operation. Although the exact timing of the death of the crew is unknown, several crew members are known to have survived the initial breakup of the spacecraft. However, the shuttle had no escape system and the astronauts did not survive the impact of the crew compartment with the ocean surface.
(August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American aviator
and a former astronaut
, test pilot
, aerospace engineer
, university professor
, and United States Naval Aviator
. He was the first person to set foot on the Moon
. His first spaceflight
was aboard Gemini 8
in 1966, for which he was the command pilot, becoming one of the first U.S. civilians to fly in space (Joseph A. Walker
became the first US civilian in space aboard X-15 Flight 90
several years earlier). On this mission, he performed the first manned docking of two spacecraft
together with pilot David Scott
. Armstrong's second and last spaceflight was as mission commander of the Apollo 11 moon landing
mission on July 20, 1969. On this mission, Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin
descended to the lunar surface and spent 2½ hours exploring while Michael Collins
remained in orbit in the Command Module. Armstrong is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor
Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong was in the United States Navy and saw action in the Korean War. After the war, he served as a test pilot at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) High-Speed Flight Station, now known as the Dryden Flight Research Center, where he flew over 900 flights in a variety of aircraft. As a research pilot, Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100 Super Sabre A and C aircraft, F-101 Voodoo, and the Lockheed F-104A Starfighter. He also flew the Bell X-1B, Bell X-5, North American X-15, F-105 Thunderchief, F-106 Delta Dart, B-47 Stratojet, KC-135 Stratotanker and Paresev. He graduated from Purdue University and the University of Southern California.
- 20 December - Soyuz TMA-17, carrying three members of Expedition 22, launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
- 1 December - Soyuz TMA-15 lands in Kazakhstan, concluding Expedition 21.
- 27 November - Space Shuttle Atlantis lands at the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, completing STS-129.
- 10 November - Progress M-MRM2, carrying the Poisk module of the International Space Station, launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.
- 11 October - Soyuz TMA-14 lands in Kazakhstan, concluding Expedition 20.
- 30 September - Soyuz TMA-16, carrying two members of Expedition 22 and a spaceflight participant, launches to the International Space Station.
- 29 September - Progress M-67 undocks from the International Space Station.
Next scheduled manned launch