Portal:Hungary

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Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország [ˈmɔɟɔrorsaːɡ] (About this soundlisten)) is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi) in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken Uralic language in the world, and among the few non-Indo-European languages to be widely spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; other major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs, and Győr.

The territory of present Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Romans, Germanic tribes, Huns, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century AD by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was partially occupied by the Ottoman Empire (1541–1699). It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, and later joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power.

The Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, and the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Postwar Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades (1949–1989). Following its failed 1956 revolution against the Soviet-backed government, Hungary became a comparatively freer, though still repressive, member of the Eastern Bloc. Its seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989 accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, and subsequently the Soviet Union. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.

Hungary is an OECD high-income economy, and has the world's 54th-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the 53rd-largest by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, due in large part to its social security system, universal health care, and tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, music, literature, sports, science and technology. It is the thirteenth-most popular tourist destination in Europe, drawing 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe.

Hungary's cultural, historical, and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007. It is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, IIB, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, and the Visegrád Group. Read more...

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The Hungarian occupation of Yugoslav territories consisted of the military occupation, then annexation, of the Bačka, Baranja, Međimurje and Prekmurje regions of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Kingdom of Hungary during World War II. These territories had all been under Hungarian rule prior to 1920, and had been transferred to Yugoslavia as part of the post-World War I Treaty of Trianon. They now form part of several states: Yugoslav Bačka is now part of Vojvodina, an autonomous province of Serbia, Yugoslav Baranja and Međimurje are part of modern-day Croatia, and Yugoslav Prekmurje is part of modern-day Slovenia. The occupation began on 11 April 1941 when 80,000 Hungarian troops crossed the Yugoslav border in support of the German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia that had commenced five days earlier. There was some resistance to the Hungarian forces from Serb Chetnik irregulars, but the defences of the Royal Yugoslav Army had collapsed by this time. The Hungarian forces were indirectly aided by the local Volksdeutsche, the German minority, which had formed a militia and disarmed around 90,000 Yugoslav troops. Despite only sporadic resistance, Hungarian troops killed many civilians during these initial operations, including some Volksdeutsche. The government of the newly formed Axis puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia, subsequently consented to the Hungarian annexation of the Međimurje area, which dismayed the Croat population of the region.

The occupation authorities immediately classified the population of Bačka and Baranja into those that had lived in those regions when they had last been under Hungarian rule in 1920 and the mostly Serb settlers who had arrived since the areas had been part of Yugoslavia. They then began herding thousands of local Serbs into concentration camps and expelled them to the Independent State of Croatia, Italian-occupied Montenegro, and the German-occupied territory of Serbia. Ultimately, tens of thousands of Serbs were deported from the occupied territories. This was followed by the implementation of a policy of "magyarisation" of the political, social and economic life of the occupied territories, which included the re-settlement of Hungarians and Székelys from other parts of Hungary. "Magyarisation" did not impact the Volksdeutsche, who received special status under Hungarian rule, and in Prekmurje the Hungarian authorities were more permissive towards ethnic Slovenes. Read more...

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The Hungary national football team (Hungarian: Magyar labdarúgó-válogatott) represents Hungary in men's international football and it is controlled by the Hungarian Football Federation, The team has made nine appearances in the FIFA World Cup finals and 3 appearances in the European Championship, and plays its home matches at the Puskás Aréna, which opened in November 2019.

Hungary has a respectable football history, having won three Olympic titles, finishing runners-up in the 1938 and 1954 World Cups, and third in the 1964 UEFA European Football Championship. Hungary revolutionized the sport in the 1950s, laying the tactical fundamentals of Total Football and dominating international football with the remarkable Golden Team which included legend Ferenc Puskás, top goalscorer of the 20th century, to whom FIFA dedicated its newest award, the Puskás Award. The side of that era has the all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in the world, with 2230 in 1954, and one of the longest undefeated runs in football history, remaining unbeaten in 31 games, spanning over four years and including matches such as the Match of the Century. Read more...

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  • Musicians

Béla BartókJános BihariErnő DohnányiBéni EgressyFerenc ErkelZoltán KocsisZoltán KodályFranz Liszt - Eugene Ormandy - George Szell - András Schiff

  • Painters

Gyula BenczúrTivadar Csontváry KosztkaBéla CzóbelÁrpád FesztyKároly LotzViktor MadarászMihály MunkácsyJózsef Rippl-RónaiPál Szinyei MerseIstván SzőnyiVictor Vasarely

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BrassaïCornell CapaRobert CapaLucien HervéAndré KertészLászló Moholy-NagyMartin Munkácsi

  • Scientists

Béla H. BánáthyZoltán BayGeorg von BékésyFarkas BolyaiJános BolyaiKároly BundJózsef EötvösLoránd EötvösDennis GaborJohn Charles HarsanyiGeorge de HevesyAlexander Csoma de KőrösLászló LovászJohn von NeumannGeorge Andrew OlahErnő RubikHans SelyeIgnaz SemmelweisCharles SimonyiJános SzentágothaiAlbert Szent-GyörgyiLeó SzilárdEdward TellerEugene Wigner

  • Writers and poets

Endre AdyJános AranyJózsef EötvösGyörgy FaludyBéla HamvasMór JókaiAttila JózsefFerenc KazinczyImre KertészJános KodolányiFerenc KölcseyImre MadáchSándor MáraiFerenc MolnárSándor PetőfiMiklós RadnótiMagda SzabóAntal SzerbMiklós VámosMihály Vörösmarty

  • Statesmen, Politicians and Military

Gyula AndrássyLajos BatthyányGabriel BethlenStephen BocskayMatthias CorvinusFerenc DeákMiklós HorthyLajos KossuthFerenc NagyImre NagyBertalan SzemereIstván SzéchenyiMiklós WesselényiVilmos Nagy of Nagybaczon

  • Sportspeople

József BozsikKrisztina EgerszegiZoltán GeraDezső GyarmatiÁgnes KeletiPéter LékóCsaba MérőTibor NyilasiLászló PappJudit PolgárZsuzsa PolgárFerenc Puskás

  • Film & Stage

Nimród AntalMichael CurtizJohn GarfieldMiklós JancsóSir Alexander KordaPeter LorreBéla LugosiEmeric PressburgerMiklós RózsaAndy G. VajnaGábor Zsazsa

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Empress Zita on the occasion of her coronation as Queen of Hungary, 1916

Zita of Bourbon-Parma (Zita Maria delle Grazie Adelgonda Micaela Raffaela Gabriella Giuseppina Antonia Luisa Agnese; 9 May 1892 – 14 March 1989) was the wife of Charles, the last monarch of Austria-Hungary. As such, she was the last Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary, in addition to other titles.

Born as the seventeenth child of the dispossessed Robert I, Duke of Parma, and his second wife, Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal, Zita married the then Archduke Charles of Austria in 1911. Charles became heir presumptive to the Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria in 1914 after the assassination of his uncle Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, and acceded to the throne in 1916 after the old emperor's death. Read more...

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