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Portal:India

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India Portal

Introduction

TajMahal Banner.jpg
Taj Mahal, Agra, India
Flag of India
Location on the world map

India (official name: the Republic of India; Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya) is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago. Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity. Modern human remains on the subcontinent date to about 30,000 years ago. Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin, evolving gradually into the Indus valley civilisation of the third millennium BCE. Between 1400 BCE and 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, appearing as the language of the Vedas, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India. The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern regions. By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism, and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, in part as a reaction, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity. Political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta empires based in the Ganges basin of north India, their collective era suffused with wide-ranging creativity, but also marked by the declining status of women, and the incorporation of untouchability into an organized system of belief. In south India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of southeast Asia.

Selected articles

British India and the princely states in 1909

At the time of Indian independence in 1947, India was divided into two sets of territories, one under direct British rule, and the other under the suzerainty of the British Crown, with control over their internal affairs remaining in the hands of their hereditary rulers. The latter included 552 princely states, having different types of revenue sharing arrangements with the British, often depending on their size, population and local conditions. In addition, there were several colonial enclaves controlled by France and Portugal. The political integration of these territories into India was a declared objective of the Indian National Congress, and the Government of India pursued this over the next decade. Through a combination of factors, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and V. P. Menon convinced the rulers of the various princely states to accede to India. Having secured their accession, they then proceeded, in a step-by-step process, to secure and extend the central government's authority over these states and transform their administrations until, by 1956, there was little difference between the territories that had been part of British India and those that had been princely states. Simultaneously, the Government of India, through a combination of diplomatic and military means, acquired de facto and de jure control over the remaining colonial enclaves, which too were integrated into India.

Although this process successfully integrated the vast majority of princely states into India, it was not as successful for a few, notably the former princely states of Jammu and Kashmir, Tripura and Manipur, where active secessionist separatist insurgencies continued to exist due to various reasons. While insurgency in Tripura has been neutralized today, it still continues to exist in Jammu and Kashmir and Manipur. Read more...

Selected picture

Sidi Saiyyad Ni Jaali

The Sidi Saiyyad Ni Jaali is the name given to the intricately carved stone window flanking the central aisle of the Sidi Saiyyed mosque in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Jaali is the Gujarati word for net. The name literally means "the net of Sidi Saiyyed". The design of intertwined tree and foliage, a palm and parasite motif has become an unofficial symbol of Ahmedabad.

Photo credit: User:L1CENSET0K1LL

Selected lists

News

21 August 2019 –
Indian senior opposition Rajya Sabha MP and former Cabinet Minister Palaniappan Chidambaram is arrested by the Central Bureau of Investigation on charges of corruption and money laundering during his term as Minister of Finance. Chidambaram has said to the Supreme Court that the government is practicing a "politically-motivated vendetta" against him and his son Karti, who is also an opposition MP. (BBC)
20 August 2019 – India–Pakistan relations, Kashmir dispute
Pakistan asks the United Nations Security Council to meet over India's decision to revoke Article 370 of the Indian Constitution that gives special status to the Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir, the sovereignty of which has been in dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. (BBC) (NDTV) (APP)
10 August 2019 –
The death toll due to the monsoon flooding in southern and western India rises to 147, while hundreds of thousands have been evacuated from their homes. (Al Jazeera)
8 August 2019 –
Floods hit the states of Karnataka and Kerala in India, resulting in 11 dead and 43,000 people being evacuated. (Gulf News)
6 August 2019 – India–Pakistan relations, Kashmir conflict
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan vows to fight India's unilateral decision to revoke Indian-administered Kashmir's autonomy, including in the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council. Mr. Khan stated this move is a breach of international law, adding he feared the possibility of ethnic cleansing in the Muslim-majority region. (BBC)
China, which administers the Kashmir territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract, voices opposition to this "unacceptable" Indian move and, along with Turkey, reaffirms their support for a peaceful resolution. (EurAsian Times) (Newsweek)
Kashmir remains on lockdown, with the internet out and nearly all phone lines severed. (The New York Times)

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Topics related to India

Timeline of Indian history, Indus Valley Civilization, Dholavira, Science and technology in ancient India, Meluhha, Aryan invasion theory, Out of India theory, Greek Conquests in India, Indian Ancient Maritime History, Mauryan dynasty, Ashokan Era, Sunga dynasty, Hoysala, Vijayanagara, Satavahana, Indo-Greek kingdom, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthian Kingdom, Kushan Empire, Western Kshatrapas, Gupta Empire, Cholas, Pala Empire, Islamic incursions in India, Mughal Era, Maratha Empire, British Raj, British East India Company, Governor-General, Viceroy, War of Independence, 1857, Indian independence movement, Indian National Army, Azad Hind, Quit India Movement, Partition of India, History of Republic of India, Non-Aligned Movement, Sino-Indian War, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Kargil War, 2001 India Pakistan standoff, Military, Demographic


Law, Hindu law, Constitution, Political parties (Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party), Foreign relations, Elections, Political divisions, Reservations in India


Government agencies, Legislative branch (Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha) Executive branch (President & Vice-President, Prime Minister & Deputy Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers, Cabinet Secretary of India, Election Commission, Foreign Minister; Law enforcement: CBI, CID, Intelligence: IB, RAW), Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation Judicial branch (Supreme Court), Military (Army, Navy, Air Force, Border Security Force, Coast Guard)


The Himalayas, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Indo Gangetic Plain, Deccan Plateau, Thar Desert, Ganges River, Rann of Kutch, Brahmaputra River, North-East India; Mountains, Valleys, Islands, Rivers; States and territories, Cities, Districts, Regions, Fauna and flora


Rupee, Bombay Stock Exchange, National Stock Exchange, Standard of living, Companies, Reserve Bank of India, Energy policy (Solar, Wind, Nuclear), Tourism, Transport (Highways, Rail transport, Auto rickshaw),


Languages, Standard of living, Religion


Music (Carnatic, Hindustani, Indi-pop), Dance, Languages, Literature, Architecture, Film & TV, Cuisine, Holidays, Folklore, Education, Media, Indian martial arts


Indian Council of Agricultural Research(ICAR), Indian Institute of Astrophysics, National Centre for Software Technology, AIIMS, IISc, IIT, NIT, BITS-Pilani, INRegistry, Indian numbering system, Indian Space Research Organisation, India Internet Exchange, ICRISAT, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad


Other

Indian English, Indian nationality law, Numbering system, Indian Space Research Organisation, Communications, National Highways Development Project, Flag, Licence plates, Indian nationalism, Metrication in India

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