Portal:India/Today's selected article/September 2006

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September 1

Muhammad Ali Jinnah was an Indian Muslim politician and statesman who led the All India Muslim League and founded Pakistan, serving as its first Governor-General. While celebrated as a great leader in Pakistan, Jinnah remains a controversial figure, provoking intense criticism for his role in the partition of India. As a student and young lawyer, Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress, expounded Hindu-Muslim unity, shaped the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the Muslim League, and was a key leader in the All India Home Rule League. Differences with Mohandas Gandhi led Jinnah to quit the Congress; he then took charge of the Muslim League and proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslim in a self-governing India. Disillusioned by the failure of his efforts and the League's disunity, Jinnah would live in London for many years. Several Muslim leaders persuaded Jinnah to return to India in 1934 and re-organise the League. Disillusioned by the failure to build coalitions with the Congress, Jinnah embraced the goal of creating a separate state for Muslims as in the Lahore Resolution. The failure of the Congress-League coalition to govern the country prompted both parties and the British to agree to partition. (more...)

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September 2

Hindi Mahastotra.jpg

Hindi, an Indo-European language spoken mainly in North, Central, and Western India, is one of the national languages of India. It is part of a dialect continuum of the Indo-Aryan family. Hindi also refers to a standardized register of Hindustani that was made one of the official languages of India. The grammatical description in this article concerns standard Hindi. It evolved from Sanskrit, by way of the Middle Indo-Aryan Prakrit languages and Apabhramsha of the Middle Ages. As a standardised register of India, it became the national language of India on January 26, 1950. Hindi is often contrasted with Urdū. The primary differences between the two are that Standard Hindi is written in Devanāgarī which is written from left to right. The Devanagari script represents the sounds of spoken Hindi very closely, so that a person who knows the Devanagari letters can sound out a written Hindī text comprehensibly, even without knowing what the words mean and has supplemented some of its Persian and Arabic vocabulary, with words from Sanskrit; while Urdu is written in nastaliq script, a variant of the Persio-Arabic script, and draws heavily on Persian and Arabic vocabulary. (more...)

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September 3

Mahatma Gandhi(Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી; Hindi: मोहनदास करमचंद गांधी was the charismatic intellectual and mass-movement leader who brought the cause of independence for British colonial India to world attention. His ideas, especially the satyagraha model of non-violent protest, have influenced both nationalist and internal movements throughout the world. By means of non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi helped bring about India's independence from British rule, inspiring other colonial peoples to work for their own independence and ultimately dismantle the British Empire and replace it with the Commonwealth of Nations. Gandhi's principle of satyagraha ('"truth force"), often roughly translated as "way of truth" or "pursuit of truth," has inspired other democratic activists, including Martin Luther King, Jr. and Nelson Mandela. He often stated his values were simple, drawn from traditional Hindu beliefs: truth (satya), and non-violence (ahimsa). (more...)

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September 4

Side view of Chennai central

Chennai, also known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fourth largest metropolitan city. It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. With an estimated population of 6.90 million, the 367-year-old city is the 31st largest metropolitan area in the world. The city is a large commercial and industrial centre, and is known for its cultural heritage and temple architecture. The city is the automobile capital of India, with around forty percent of the automobile industry having a base there. The 12 kilometre long Marina Beach forms the city's east coast and is one of the longest beaches in the world. The city is also known for its sport venues and hosts India's only ATP tennis event, the Chennai Open. Chennai is located on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains. The city has an average elevation of 6 metres, its highest point being 60 m. City is governed by the Corporation of Chennai, which consists of a Mayor and 155 Councillors representing the 155 Wards. Chennai's culture reflects its diverse population. The city is known for its classical dance shows and Hindu temples. (more...)

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September 5

Muhammad Iqbal

Muhammad Iqbal was an Indian poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as one of the greatest in modern times. Also famous for his work on religious and political philosophy in Islam, he is credited with first proposing the idea of an independent state for Indian Muslims, which would inspire the creation of Pakistan. After studying in England and Germany, Iqbal established a law practise, but he primarily concentrated on religious and philosophical subjects, writing scholarly works on politics, economics, history, philosophy and religion. He is best known for his poetic works, which include the Asrar-e-Khudi, in honour of which he was knighted by the British government. Scholars have hailed his poetry in Persian as some of the best in modern times. Iqbal was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilisation across the world, but specifically in India. He is commemorated as the national poet of Pakistan. (more...)

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September 6

Trivandrum Central

Thiruvananthapuram (Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം), formerly known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala and the headquarters of Thiruvananthapuram District. It is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland.It is characterized by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills with wide, clean roads and busy commercial alleys. India's Father of Nation Mahatma Gandhi had referred and designated this lovely beach side city built on hills as the "Ever Green City of India". With almost 745,000 inhabitants at the 2001 census, the city itself is the largest and most populous city in Kerala; the wider urban agglomeration has a population of about one million.

The city is the State Capital and houses several Central and State Government offices, organizations and companies. Apart from being the political nerve center of Kerala, it is also a major academic hub and is home to several premier educational institutions including the Kerala University, and to many science and technology institutions, the most prominent being the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC). The city also has the first Information technology park of its kind and first Biotechnology Center, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology (RGCB) of its kind in India. Situated near Kazhakoottam, Technopark is home to many of the world's leading technology companies. (more...)

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September 7

Emblem of India

The Directive Principles of State Policy are guidelines to the central and state governments of India, to be kept in mind while framing laws and policies. These provisions, contained in Part IV of the Constitution of India, are not enforceable by any court, but the principles laid down therein are considered fundamental in the governance of the country, making it the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws to establish a just society in the country. The principles have been inspired by the Directive Principles given in the Constitution of Ireland and also by the principles of Gandhism; and relate to social justice, economic welfare, foreign policy, and legal and administrative matters.

They aim at achieving social and economic democracy for establishing a welfare state. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian, economic and socialistic, political and administrative, justice and legal, environmental, protection of monuments and peace and security. (more...)

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September 8

Adi Shankara, also known as Ādi Śaṅkarācārya ("the first Shankara in his lineage"), c. 788820 CE, was the first philosopher to consolidate the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta, a sub-school of Vedanta. His teachings are based on the unity of the soul and God, in which God is viewed as simultaneously personal and attributeless. In the Smārta tradition, Adi Shankara is regarded as an incarnation of Shiva.

Adi Shankara toured India with the purpose of propagating his teachings through discourses and debates with other philosophers. He founded four mathas ("abbeys") which played a key role in the historical development and spread of Hinduism and Advaita Vedanta. Adi Shankara was the founder of the Dashanami monastic order and the Shanmata tradition of worship. His works in Sanskrit, all of which are extant today, concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of Advaita (Sanskrit, "Non-dualism"). Adi Shankara quotes extensively from the Upanishads and other Hindu scriptures in forming his teachings. He also includes polemics against opposing schools of thought like Samkhya and Buddhism in his works. (more...)

Recently appeared: Directive Principles in IndiaThiruvananthapuramMuhammad Iqbal


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September 9

Pix.gif

The Kargil War, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between April and June 1999 in Kashmir. The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the Line of Control, which serves as the de facto border between the two nations. Pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri insurgents; however, documents left behind by casualties and later statements by Pakistan's Prime Minister and Army Chief showed involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces. The Indian Army, supported by the air force, attacked the Pakistani positions and, with international diplomatic support, eventually forced a Pakistani withdrawal across the Line of Control (LoC).

The war is one of the most recent examples of high altitude warfare, in mountainous terrain, and posed significant logistics problems for the combating sides. This was the first ground war between any two nuclear armed countries. (India and Pakistan both test-detonated fission devices in May 1998, though the first Indian nuclear test was conducted in 1974.) The conflict led to heightened tensions between the two nations and increased defense spending on the part of India. In Pakistan, the aftermath caused instability to the government and the economy, and on October 13, 1999, a coup d'etat by the military, placed army chief Pervez Musharraf in power. (more...)

Recently appeared: Adi ShankaraDirective Principles in IndiaThiruvananthapuram


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September 10

Main building of IIT Kharagpur

The Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (commonly known as IIT Kharagpur or IIT KGP) is an autonomous engineering and technology-oriented institute of higher education established by the Government of India. Located in Kharagpur, it was the first of the seven IITs, established in 1951. Officially recognised as an Institute of National Importance, IIT Kharagpur is widely regarded as one of the best engineering institutions in Asia.

IIT Kharagpur was established to train scientists and engineers after India attained independence from British rule in 1947. It is linked to the other IITs in its organisational structure as well as its admission process (IIT-JEE). The students and alumni of IIT Kharagpur are referred to as ‘‘KGPians’’. IIT Kharagpur has the largest campus (2,100 acres (8.5 km2)), maximum student enrollment, maximum number of departments, and the largest library among all IITs. IIT Kharagpur is particularly famous for Illumination and Rangoli festival, in addition to Spring Fest (social and cultural festival) and Kshitij (technology festival). (more...)

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September 11

Kochi (formerly known as Cochin) is a city in the Indian state of Kerala, and one of the principal seaports of the country. According to the 2001 census, the metropolitan area of Kochi is the largest urban agglomeration in Kerala, with a population of 1,355,406 – of which 650,000 reside in the city. Kochi is located in the district of Ernakulam, about 220 km north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. Since 1102 AD, the city of Kochi was the seat of an eponymous princely state which traces its lineages to the Kulasekhara empire. Kochi was an important spice trading centre on the Arabian Sea coast since the 14th century. Kochi was the site of the first European colonial settlement in India, and remained the capital of Portuguese India till 1530, before it was moved to Goa. The city was later occupied by the Dutch, Mysore and the English. Successive waves of migration over the course of several millennia, has made Kochi a melting pot of different cultures; a blend of tradition and modernity. Kochi is the commercial hub of Kerala, and one of the fastest growing second-tier metros in India. (more...)

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September 12

Emblem of India

K. M. Nanavati vs. State of Maharashtra was a 1959 Indian court case involving Kawas Manekshaw Nanavati, who was tried for shooting dead Prem Ahuja, his wife Sylvia's paramour. The incident shocked the nation, got unprecedented media coverage and inspired several books and movies. The case was not only the last jury trial held in India, but also a direct cause for the abolition of jury trials.

In the historic case, Nanavati, a Naval Officer, was put up on trial under section 302 and 304 Part I of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) for alleged murder of his wife's paramour. The High Court dismissed the earlier acquittal by a Jury Trial and convicted the accused to life imprisonment under Sec. 302 of IPC. (more...)

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September 13

An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon by Robert Knox (1681)

For thousands of years, crushing by elephant was a common method of execution for those condemned to death, mainly throughout south and southeast Asia, and particularly in India. Elephants employed in this manner were used to crush, dismember, or torture captives in public executions. The use of elephants to execute captives often attracted the horrified interest of European travellers, and was recorded in numerous contemporary journals and accounts of life in Asia. The practice was eventually suppressed by the European empires that colonised the region in the 18th and 19th centuries. (more...)

Recently appeared: K. M. Nanavati vs. State of MaharashtraKochi (India)Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur


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September 14

Location of Mirzapur

Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+5:30. India does not observe daylight saving time (DST) or other seasonal adjustments, although DST was used briefly during the Sino–Indian War of 1962, and the Indo–Pakistani Wars of 1965 and 1971. In certain time-zone maps, IST is designated as E*.

Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82.5 °E longitude which just west of the town of Mirzapur, near Allahabad in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The latitude difference between Mirzapur and the Royal Observatory, Greenwich in the UK translates to an exact time difference of 5 hours and 30 minutes. Local time is calculated from a clock tower at the Allahabad Observatory (25°09′N 82°30′E / 25.15°N 82.5°E / 25.15; 82.5) though the official time servers are located in New Delhi. (more...)

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September 15

Location of Kottayam in Kerala

Red rain in Kerala was a phenomenon observed sporadically from 25 July to 23 September 2001 in the southern Indian state of Kerala. Heavy downpours occurred in which the rain was primarily red, staining clothes and appearing like blood. Yellow, green, and black rains were also reported.

It was initially suspected that the rains were coloured by fallout from a hypothetical meteor burst, but the Government of India commissioned a study which found the rains had been coloured by spores from a locally prolific aerial algae. Then in early 2006, the coloured rains of Kerala suddenly rose to worldwide attention after media reports of an extraordinary theory that the coloured particles are extraterrestrial cells, proposed by Godfrey Louis and Santhosh Kumar of the Mahatma Gandhi University in Kottayam. (more...)

Recently appeared: Indian Standard TimeCrushing by elephantK. M. Nanavati vs. State of Maharashtra


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September 16

Mahabharata is one of the two major ancient Sanskrit epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. Traditionally ascribed to Vyasa, it is the longest literary epic poem in the world. The title may be translated as "History of the Great India" or, more accurately, "the Great Bharata Dynasty" . The work is part of the Hindu itihaasas, literally "that which happened", along with the Puranas. The core story of the work is that of a dynastic struggle for the throne of Hastinapura, the kingdom ruled by the Kuru clan. The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kauravas and the Pandavas. The struggle culminates leading to the Great battle of Kurukshetra, and the Pandavas are ultimately victorious. It also marks the beginning of the Hindu age of Kali (Kali Yuga), where the great values and noble ideas have crumbled, and man is speedily heading toward the complete dissolution of right action, morality and virtue. Some of the most noble and revered figures in the Mahabharat end up fighting on the side of the Kauravas, due to allegiances formed prior to the conflict. (more...)

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September 17

Site lothal.jpg

Lothal was one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Located in the state of Gujarat in India, it was discovered in 1954, and its existence dates from 2400 BCE. Lothal's dock—the world's earliest—made the city a vital centre of trade between Harappan cities, West Asia and Africa. The dock, its wharf, lock-gate system, and sophisticated drainage system are unusual marvels of engineering. Lothal yielded the most important Indus-era antiquities in modern India. Its scientists divided the horizon and sky into 8–12 whole parts, pioneering the study of stars and advanced navigation. (more...)

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September 18

Emblem of India.svg

The Fundamental Rights in India enshrined in the Constitution of India guarantee civil liberties such that all Indians can lead their lives in peace and harmony as citizens of India. These include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom to practice religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights by means of writs such as habeas corpus. The punishment for encroaching on these rights is upon the discretion of the judiciary and the punishments laid out in the Indian Penal Code.

The Fundamental Rights are defined as basic human freedoms which every Indian citizen has the right to enjoy for a proper and harmonious development of personality. These rights (defined in Part III of the Constitution of India) universally apply to all citizens, irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed, colour or sex. They are enforceable by the courts, subject to certain restrictions. The Rights have their origins in many sources, including England's Bill of Rights, the United States Bill of Rights and France's Declaration of the Rights of Man. (more...)

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September 19

The geography of India is extremely diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, hills and plateaus. Climate ranges from equatorial in the far south, to tundra in the Himalayan altitudes. India comprises most of the Indian subcontinent and has a long coastline of over 7,000 km (4,300 miles), most of which lies on a peninsula that protrudes into the Indian Ocean. India is bounded in the west by the Arabian Sea and in the east by the Bay of Bengal. The fertile Indo-Gangetic plain occupies most of northern, central and eastern India, while the Deccan Plateau occupies most of southern India. To the west of the country is the Thar Desert, which consists of a mix of rocky and sandy desert, while India's east and northeastern border consists of the high Himalayan range. (more...)

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September 20

Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay) is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the most populous Indian city. Mumbai is located on an island off the west coast of India. The city, which has a deep natural harbour, is also the largest port in western India, handling over half of India's passenger traffic. Mumbai is the commercial capital of India, and houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange and the corporate headquarters of many Indian companies. Owing to the immense business opportunities available in Mumbai and relatively high standard of living, it has attracted migrants from all over India and South Asia, making the city a potpourri of various communities and cultures. Within Mumbai is located Bollywood, the epicentre of the country's Hindi film and television industry, producing the world's highest number of films annually. Mumbai is also one of the rare cities to accommodate a National Park within its municipal limits. (more...)

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September 21

The Tamil people are an ethnic group from South Asia with a recorded history going back almost two millennia. The oldest Tamil communities are those of southern India and north-eastern Sri Lanka. Unlike many ethnic groups, the Tamils have at no time been governed by a single political entity; Tamil̲akam, the traditional name for the Tamil lands, has always been under the rule of more than one kingdom or state. Despite this, the Tamil cultural identity has always been strong. Historically, this identity has been primarily linguistic, with Tamils being those whose first language was Tamil. In recent times, however, the definition has been broadened to also include emigrants of Tamil descent who maintain Tamil traditions, even when they no longer speak the language. Tamils are ethnically, linguistically and culturally related to the other Dravidian peoples of South Asia. There are an estimated 74 million Tamils around the world. Most Indian Tamils live in the state of Tamil Nadu, which includes the major part of the former Madras Presidency. Morover, Tamils are in a clear majority in the union territory of Puducherry, a former French colony which is a subnational enclave situated geographically within Tamil Nadu. (more...).

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September 22

Buddhist art, defined as the figurative arts and decorative arts linked to the Buddhist religion, originated in the Indian subcontinent in the centuries following the life of the historical Gautama Buddha in the 6th to 5th century BCE, before evolving through its contact with other cultures and its diffusion through the rest of Asia and the world. A first, essentially Indian, aniconic phase (avoiding direct representations of the Buddha), was followed from around the 1st century CE by an iconic phase (with direct representations of the Buddha). From that time, Buddhist art diversified and evolved as it adapted to the new countries where the faith was expanding. It developed to the north through Central Asia and into Eastern Asia to form the Northern branch of Buddhist art, and to the east as far as South-East Asia to form the Southern Branch of Buddhist art. In India, the land of its birth, Buddhist art flourished and even influenced the development of Hindu art, until Buddhism almost disappeared around the 10th century with the expansion of Hinduism and Islam. (more...)

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September 23

Satyajit Ray (May 2, 1921 – April 23, 1992) was an Indian film director, regarded as one of the greatest auteurs of twentieth century cinema for his subtle, austere and lyrical style of film-making. Born in a prominent Bengali family of arts and letters, Ray studied in Kolkata and at the Visva-Bharati University, Shantiniketan. After completing his education, Ray took up visual design, before turning to film direction. Ray's cinematic debut, Pather Panchali (1955) is a milestone of humanist filmmaking and changed the course of Bengali and Indian cinema. Ray directed thirty-seven films, comprising features, documentaries and shorts. Apart from being a film-maker, he was also a fiction writer, publisher, illustrator, graphic designer and film critic. Ray received many major film and movie awards in his career, including an Academy Award for lifetime achievement in 1991 shortly before his death in Kolkata. (more...)

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September 24

Devastation in Sumatra

The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, also known as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) on December 26, 2004. The earthquake triggered a series of lethal tsunamis that spread throughout the Indian Ocean, killing large numbers of people and devastating coastal communities across South and South East Asia, including parts of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand and elsewhere. The number of casualties were 186,983 dead and 42,883 missing, for a total of 229,866 affected. This catastrophe is one of the deadliest disasters in modern history and is known in Asia and in the international media as the Asian Tsunami, and also called the Boxing Day Tsunami. The magnitude of the earthquake has been upgraded to between 9.1 and 9.3 on the Richter scale. This earthquake was also reported to be the longest duration of faulting ever observed, lasting between 500 and 600 seconds, and it was large enough that it caused the entire planet to vibrate at least half an inch, or over a centimetre. The earthquake originated in the Indian Ocean just north of Simeulue island, off the western coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The plight of the many affected people and countries prompted a widespread humanitarian response, with more than US$7 billion donated in aid for those affected. (more...)

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September 25

The Himalayan mountain range in North Sikkim.

Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. It is the least populous state in India, and the second smallest. Sikkim was an independent state ruled by the Chogyal monarchy until 1975, when a referendum to make it India's twenty-second state succeeded. The thumb-shaped state borders Nepal in the west, Tibet to the north and east, and Bhutan in the south-east. The Indian state of West Bengal borders Sikkim to its south. The official language is Nepali, and the predominant religions are Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism. Gangtok is the capital and largest town. Despite its small size, Sikkim is geographically diverse, owing to its location at the Himalayan foothills. Terrain ranges from tropical in the south to tundra in the north. Kanchenjunga, the world's third highest peak, is located in Sikkim, straddling its northern border with Nepal. Sikkim has become one of India's most visited states owing to its reputation for untouched scenic beauty and political stability. (more...)

Recently appeared: 2004 Indian Ocean earthquakeSatyajit RayBuddhist art


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September 26

Ganesh

Hinduism is a religion or philosophy that originated from the Indian subcontinent and nearby surrounding areas. The term Hinduism is heterogeneous, as Hinduism consists of several schools of thought. It encompasses many religious rituals that widely vary in practice, as well as many diverse sects and philosophies. Many Hindus, influenced by Advaita philosophy, venerate an array of deities, considering them manifestations of the one supreme monistic Cosmic Spirit, Brahman, while many others focus on a singular concept of Brahman (God), as in Vaishnavism, Saivism and Shaktism.

Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world, with approximately 900 million adherents (2005 figure), of whom approximately 890 million live in India. It is also the oldest known religion in the world today. Unlike many other religions, Hinduism has no main founder, and no main holy city. It also has no single holy book — its original scriptures were the four Vedas, but as time has passed, many other scriptures have also emerged. (more...)


Recently appeared: Sikkim2004 Indian Ocean earthquakeSatyajit Ray


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September 27

Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and was capital of British India until 1912. The city's name was officially changed from Calcutta to Kolkata in January 2001. The urban agglomeration of Kolkata covers several municipal corporations, municipalities, city boards and villages and is the third largest urban agglomeration in India after Mumbai and Delhi. As per the census of 2001, the urban agglomeration's population was 13,216,546 while that of the city was 4,580,544. Kolkata city's population growth has been pretty low in the last decade. The city is situated on the banks of the Hoogli River (a distributary of the Ganges). Some of the renowned engineering marvels associated with Kolkata include the bridges like, Howrah Bridge, Vivekananda Setu and Vidyasagar Setu. Kolkata is the main business, commercial and financial hub of eastern India. The city's economic fortunes turned the tide as the early nineties economic liberalization in India reached Kolkata's shores during late nineties. (more...)

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September 28

Constitution of India.jpg

Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties are important parts of the Constitution of India. The Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties of the citizens of India address freedom and democracy in the country, and the Directive Principles guide the Government in making laws and policies. The Fundamental Rights are basic human freedoms which every citizen of India has the right to enjoy for a proper and harmonious development of his personality. These rights, set out in Part III of the Constitution of India, universally apply to all citizens, irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed, colour or sex. The Directive Principles of State Policy are guidelines that the Government should use while framing laws and policies. These provisions, contained in Part IV of the Constitution, relate to social justice, economic welfare, legal and administrative matters, and foreign policy. The Fundamental Duties are moral obligations on all citizens of India which help promote a spirit of patriotism and uphold the unity, integrity and sovereignty of India. These duties, given in Part IV–A of the Constitution of India, concern the self, the environment, the State and society. and the Nation. (more...)

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September 29

Bangalore is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is located on the Mysore Plateau in southwestern Karnataka. With an estimated metropolitan population of 6.1 million (2006), it is India's third-largest city and fifth-largest metropolitan area. Though historical references to the city predate 900, a modern written history of continuous settlement exists only from 1537, when Kempe Gowda I, who many regard as the architect of modern Bangalore, built a mud fort in the city and established it as a province of the imperial Vijayanagara Empire. The city's temperate climate, which is milder than that of other cities in the country, has been a major attraction to people from other parts of India. After India gained independence in 1947, Bangalore evolved into a manufacturing hub for public sector heavy industries — prominently aerospace, space and defence industries. Bangalore is referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" and has the second-highest literacy rate in the nation. However, as a large and growing metropolis in the developing world Bangalore continues to struggle with problems such as air pollution, traffic congestion, and crime. (more...)

Recently appeared: Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties of IndiaKolkataHinduism


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September 30
The Bombay Stock Exchange is the country's main stock exchange.

The economy of India is the fourth-largest in the world as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP), with a GDP of $3.3 trillion. When measured in USD exchange rates it is the tenth largest in the world, with a GDP of $691.8 billion. However India's huge population results in a relatively low per capita income ($3,100 at PPP). Services are the major source of economic growth in India today, though two-thirds of Indian workforce earn their livelihood directly or indirectly through agriculture. In recent times, India has also capitalised on its large number of highly-educated populace fluent in the English language to become a major exporter of software services, financial services and software engineers. For most of India's independent history, a socialist inspired approach was adhered to, with strict government control and regulation on private sector participation, foreign trade and foreign direct investment. Since the early 1990s, India has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment. The socio-economic problems India faces are the burgeoning population, growing inequality, lack of infrastructure, growing unemployment and growing poverty. (more...)

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Today's selected article for Indian Portal archive
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