India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three-quarters of the population in the 7–10 age group, by 2011. India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development. Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions. While enrollment in higher education has increased steadily over the past decade, reaching a Gross Enrollment Ratio of 24% in 2013, there still remains a significant distance to catch up with tertiary education enrollment levels of developed nations, a challenge that will be necessary to overcome in order to continue to reap a demographic dividend from India's comparatively young population.
The remnants of the library of Nalanda, built in the 5th century BCE by Gupta kings. It was rebuilt twice after invasion, first after an invasion from the Huns in the 5th century BCE and then after an invasion from the Gaudas in the 7th century CE but abandoned after the third invasion by Turkic invaders in the 12th century.
London Mission Bengali Girls' School, Calcutta (LMS, 1869, p.12)