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Portal:Indonesia

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Map of Indonesia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea. Indonesia is the world's largest island country, the largest archipelagic country, and the 14th-largest country by area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles). With over 275 million people, Indonesia is the world's fourth-most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

Indonesia is a presidential republic with an elected legislature. It has 37 provinces, of which eight have special status. The country's capital, Jakarta, is the world's second-most populous urban area. Indonesia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia, as well as maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands). Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity.

Indonesia consists of thousands of distinct native ethnic and hundreds of linguistic groups, with Javanese being the largest. A shared identity has developed with the motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, cultural diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. The economy of Indonesia is the world's 17th-largest by nominal GDP and the 7th-largest by PPP. It is a regional power and is considered a middle power in global affairs. The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the United Nations, World Trade Organization, G20, and a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, East Asia Summit, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. (Full article...)

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National Hero of Indonesia (Indonesian: Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia) is the highest-level title awarded in Indonesia. It is posthumously given by the Government of Indonesia for actions which are deemed to be heroic, defined as "actual deeds which can be remembered and exemplified for all time by other citizens" or "extraordinary service furthering the interests of the state and people". The Ministry of Social Affairs gives seven criteria which an individual must fulfill, as follows:

  1. Have been an Indonesian citizen who is deceased and, during his lifetime, led an armed struggle or produced a concept or product useful to the state;
  2. Have continued the struggle throughout his life and performed above and beyond the call of duty;
  3. Have had a wide-reaching impact through his actions;
  4. Have shown a high degree of nationalism;
  5. Have been of good moral standing and respectable character;
  6. Never surrendered to his enemies; and
  7. Never committed an act which taints his or her legacy.
Nominations undergo a four-step process and must be approved at each level. A proposal is made by the general populace in a city or regency to the mayor or regent, who must then make a request to the province's governor. The governor then makes a recommendation to the Ministry of Social Affairs, which forwards it to the president, represented by the Board of Titles (Dewan Gelar); this board consists of two academics, two persons of a military background, and three persons who have previously received an award or title. Those selected by the president, as represented by the Board, are awarded the title at a ceremony in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta. Since 2000, the ceremony has occurred in early November, coinciding with Indonesia's Heroes' Day (Hari Pahlawan). (Full article...)
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Lies Noor
Photograph credit: Djakartawood Studio; restored by Chris Woodrich
Lies Noor (c. 1938 – 1961) was an Indonesian actress. She first appeared on film in Pulang (Homecoming) in 1952, while she was still at school. She rose in popularity with a string of successful films, and was able to command high fees for her roles. In the mid-1950s, having married and had a child, she took a break from her career to care full-time for her son. After returning to acting in 1960, however, she developed encephalitis the next year and died in hospital two days later. This photograph of Noor was taken around 1956.

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A beer assortment sold in Bali, Indonesia; Carlsberg, Bali Hai, Bintang and Anker Beer.
Beer in Indonesia started in 1929, when the Heineken beer company established its first brewery factory in Surabaya, East Java, during Dutch colonial rule of Indonesia. This was one of the earliest beer enterprise in Southeast Asia. In July 1931 the Archipel Brouweriji Compagnie (Archipelago Brewery Co.) was formed in Batavia (now known as Jakarta), by German brewer, Beck's, constructing breweries in both Singapore and Batavia. By 1960s, Indonesians developed their own local brands of beer, which includes Bintang Beer (nationalized from Heineken) and Anker Beer. (Full article...)

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Portrait of Maria Ulfah Santoso
Maria Ulfah Santoso in 1947

Maria Ulfah Soebadio Sastrosatomo (18 August 1911 – 15 April 1988), better known by her first married name Maria Ulfah Santoso, was an Indonesian politician and women's rights activist who served as Minister of Social Affairs under Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir. She was the first Indonesian woman to receive a degree in law as well as the first female Indonesian cabinet member. Santoso, the daughter of a politician, became interested in women's rights after seeing numerous injustices in her youth. Despite pressure to become a doctor, she graduated with a degree in law from Leiden University in 1933; while in the Netherlands she also became involved in the Indonesian nationalist movement.

Upon returning to the Dutch East Indies, Santoso began teaching and working towards marriage reform. She was a member of the Committee for Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence, and later became the social minister from 12 March 1946 to 26 June 1947. After her term, she continued to work with the government in various capacities. Chosen for the cabinet post in part for her emancipatory activities, Santoso paved the way for other female cabinet members, including S. K. Trimurti in 1947. She received several awards from the Indonesian government for her activities. (Full article...)

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Bintan Island

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The proclamation being read

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