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Welcome to the International Relations Portal
International relations are relationships between countries, including the roles of States, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations (MNCs). International relations are both an academic and public policy field, and can be either positive or normative, as international relations seek to analyze as well as to formulate the foreign policy of particular States. The study of international relations is often considered a branch of political science (especially after 1988 UNESCO nomenclature), but an important sector of academia prefer to treat it as an interdisciplinary field of study. Aspects of international relations have been studied for thousands of years, since the time of Thucydides, but international relations became a separate and definable discipline in the early 20th century.
Apart from political science, international relations draw upon such diverse fields as
economics, history, international law, philosophy, geography, social work, sociology, anthropology, criminology, psychology, gender studies, and cultural studies / culturology. International relations involve a diverse range of issues, including, but not limited to: globalization, state sovereignty, international security, ecological sustainability, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic development, global finance, terrorism, organized crime, human security, foreign interventionism, human rights.
( World War II WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War (after the recent Great War), was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In a state of " total war", the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust (during which approximately 11 million people were killed) and the strategic bombing of industrial and population centres (during which approximately one million people were killed, including the use of two nuclear weapons in combat), it resulted in an estimated 50 million to 85 million fatalities. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history. ( more...)
(February 17, 1904 – July 19, 1980) was one of the leading twentieth-century figures in the study of Hans Joachim Morgenthau international politics. He made landmark contributions to international relations theory and the study of international law, and his , first published in 1948, went through five editions during his lifetime. Politics Among Nations
Morgenthau also wrote widely about international politics and U.S.
foreign policy for general-circulation publications such as , The New Leader , Commentary Worldview, The New York Review of Books, and . He knew and corresponded with many of the leading intellectuals and writers of his era, such as The New Republic Reinhold Niebuhr, Rice, Daniel. Reinhold Niebuhr and His Circle of Influence, University of Cambridge Press, 2013, complete chapter on George Kennan.</ref> and Hannah Arendt. At one point in the early Cold War, Morgenthau was a consultant to the U.S. Department of State when Kennan headed its Policy Planning Staff, and a second time during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations until he was dismissed when he began to publicly criticize American policy in Vietnam. For most of his career, however, Morgenthau was esteemed as an academic interpreter of U.S. foreign policy.
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