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(; Israel Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, ), is a country in Medinat Yisra'el Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although international recognition of the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem is limited.
Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of
hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age. The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces. The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, the expulsion of the Jewish population and the renaming of the region from to Iudaea . Syria Palaestina Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement followed by immigration to Palestine.
The land was controlled as a
mandate of the British Empire from 1920 to 1948, having been ceded by the Ottomans at the end of the First World War. Not long after, the Second World War saw the mandate bombed heavily and Yishuv Jews serve for the Allies, after the British agreed to supply arms and form a Jewish Brigade in 1944. Amidst growing tension and with the British eager to appease both Arab and Jewish factions, the United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine in 1947 recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, and rejected by Arab leaders. The following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, and the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, and since the Six-Day War in June 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (still considered occupied after the 2005 disengagement, although some legal experts dispute this claim). Subsequent legislative acts have resulted in the full application of Israeli law within the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, as well as its partial application in the West Bank via "pipelining" into Israeli settlements. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is internationally considered to be the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement, while Israel has signed peace treaties with both Egypt and Jordan.
Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state and the nation state of the Jewish people. The country is a liberal democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. With a population of around 9 million as of 2019, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member. It has the world's 31st-largest economy by nominal GDP, and is the most developed country currently in conflict. It has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, and ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training, percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree, research and development spending by GDP percentage, women's safety, life expectancy, innovativeness, and happiness. ( )
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are considered the most developed in the Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in Israel Middle East. Although same-sex sexual activity was legalized in 1988, the former law against sodomy had not been enforced since a court decision in 1963. Israel became the first country in Asia to recognize unregistered cohabitation between same-sex couples, making it the first country in Asia to recognize same-sex unions in any capacity. Although same-sex marriages are not performed in the country, Israel recognizes same-sex marriages performed elsewhere. Discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation was prohibited in 1992. Same-sex couples are allowed to jointly adopt, following a landmark court decision in 2008. Previously, stepchild adoption as well as limited co-guardianship rights for non-biological parents were permitted. LGBT people are also allowed to serve openly in the military.
has frequently been referred to by publishers as one of the most gay-friendly cities in the world, famous for its annual
and gay beach, earning it the nickname "the gay capital of the Middle East" by
magazine. According to LGBT travelers, it was ranked as the best gay city in 2011, despite reports of some anti-LGBT violence during the 2000s, which were criticized by Prime Minister
. A monument dedicated to the
gay victims of the Holocaust
was erected in Tel Aviv in 2014.
have found that a majority of Israelis support the legalization of same-sex marriage, as well as adoption and surrogacy rights for same-sex couples. During International Pride Month on 21 June 2020, Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality announced that same-sex couples would have exactly the same rights as opposite-sex marriages there, with this being provided by the municipality. Marriages inside the municipality will be legally recognized as others. (
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Dead Tree in Sea of Life is an installation artwork from 2017 by Amiram Dora, a travel guide from the nearby city Arad. The work consists of a tree planted on a salt pile in the . The purpose of the work is to show that as opposed to its common name, the Dead Sea is actually a place of rich tourist activity, healing and relaxation.
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Good article -
This is a Good article, an article that meets a core set of high editorial standards.
or Arrow ( Hetz Hebrew: חֵץ, pronounced ) is a family of [ˈχet͡s] anti-ballistic missiles designed to fulfill an Israeli requirement for a missile defense system that would be more effective against ballistic missiles than the MIM-104 Patriot surface-to-air missile. Jointly funded and produced by Israel and the United States, development of the system began in 1986 and has continued since, drawing some contested criticism. Undertaken by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and Boeing, it is overseen by the Israeli Ministry of Defense's " Homa " ( Hebrew: חומה, pronounced , " [χoma] rampart") administration and the U.S. Missile Defense Agency.
The Arrow system consists of the joint production
Arrow anti-missile interceptor, the
Elta EL/M-2080 "Green Pine" early-warning AESA radar
"Golden Citron" ("Citron Tree")
center, and the
Israel Aerospace Industries
"Brown Hazelnut" ("Hazelnut Tree") launch control center. The system is transportable, as it can be moved to other prepared sites. (
Selected fare or cuisine - General images -
The following are images from various Israel-related articles on Wikipedia.
. The practice of psalms is referred to as a philosophical and theological problem
David dictating the Psalms
Heraclius returning the True Cross to Jerusalem, 15th-century painting by Miguel Ximénez
Gal Fridman, winner of Israel's first Olympic gold medal
Merneptah Stele. While alternative translations exist, the majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," representing the first instance of the name in the historical record.
Habimah Theater in Tel Aviv
Jewish workers in
Kerem Avraham neighbourhood of Jerusalem (c. 1850s)
The Bahri Mamluk dynasty 1250–1382
Shrine of the Báb, built between 1949 and 1953, is an example of the architecture in Israel
Tzofim Israeli scout movement fire ceremony in Tel Aviv
Patriot missiles launched to intercept an Iraqi Scud over Tel Aviv during the Gulf War
Bookplate done for Martin Buber; The plate is adorned with the walls of Jerusalem in the shape of a Shield of David, viewed from above
Israeli paratroopers dig in near the
Mitla Pass, 31 October 1956
Intel core i7-940. Intel developed its
dual-core Core Duo processor at its Israel Development Center in Haifa.
A portion of the
Isaiah scroll. One of the earliest known manuscripts of biblical literature
Jewish symbols in Israeli artworks
Buchenwald survivors arrive in Haifa to be arrested by the British, 15 July 1945
The route of the exiles to Babylon
Illustration for the
Song of Songs. Along with the Book of Esther, the ancient poem is an example of an ancient Israeli literature with no mention of God, and is traditionally read as an allegory of the relationship between God and Israel
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