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( Italy Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (), officially the ) listen Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana ), is a country consisting of a [reˈpubblika itaˈljaːna] peninsula delimited by the Alps and surrounded by several islands. Italy is located in south-central Europe, and is considered part of western Europe. A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital, the country covers a total area of 301,340 km 2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial enclave in Switzerland ( Campione) and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters ( Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union.
Due to its central geographic location in
Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout what is now modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Indo-European Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded colonies mostly in insular Italy, Greeks established settlements in the so-called of Magna Graecia Southern Italy, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively. An Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People. The Roman Republic initially conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the Italian peninsula, eventually expanding and conquering parts of Europe, North Africa and Asia. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became a leading cultural, political and religious centre, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's law, technology, economy, art, and literature developed. Italy remained the homeland of the Romans and the metropole of the empire, whose legacy can also be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments, Christianity and the Latin script.
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A collection of different pasta varieties
(, ; Pasta Italian pronunciation: ) is a type of [ˈpasta] food typically made from an unleavened dough of wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, and formed into sheets or other shapes, then cooked by boiling or baking. Rice flour, or legumes such as beans or lentils, are sometimes used in place of wheat flour to yield a different taste and texture, or as a gluten-free alternative. Pasta is a staple food of Italian cuisine.
Pastas are divided into two broad categories: dried (
) and fresh (
). Most dried pasta is produced commercially via an
process, although it can be produced at home. Fresh pasta is traditionally produced by hand, sometimes with the aid of simple machines. Fresh pastas available in grocery stores are produced commercially by large-scale machines.
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The following are images from various Italy-related articles on Wikipedia.
espresso comes from the Italian esprimere, which means "to express," and refers to the process by which hot water is forced under pressure through ground coffee.
The signing ceremony of the
Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957, creating the EEC, forerunner of the present-day EU.
Fiat 600, iconic middle-class dream car and status symbol of the 1950-60s.
Mussolini and Hitler in June 1940.
Giacomo Matteotti was murdered a few days after he openly denounced Fascist violence during the 1924 elections.
Italian prisoners in El Alamein, November 1942.
Contemporary engraving of Naples during the
Naples Plague in 1656
Italy has been a home for innovation in
science in the centuries since Galileo formulated his theories of planetary movement.
St. Peter's Basilica is the world's largest Christian church. It is the second church to stand above the crypt (tomb) believed to hold the body of Saint Peter, the first pope.
Sergio Mattarella, President of the Italian Republic, elected on 3 February 2015.
Italian states (1815–1859).
Prada shop in Singapore.
Roman Forum, the commercial, cultural, and political center of the city and the Republic which housed the various offices and meeting places of the government.
Italian Lombard kingdom (781–1014).
mosaic depicts some of the Gladiators entertainments that would have been offered at the games.
Attack of the far-right terrorist group NAR at the Bologna railway station on 2 August 1980, which caused the death of 85 people.
Italy and the nearby islands in the 1st century BCE.
Fiume cheering D'Annunzio and his Legionari, September 1919. At the time, Fiume had 22,488 (62% of the population) Italians in a total population of 35,839 inhabitants.
gelato ice cream dessert.
From left to right, Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini and Italian Foreign Minister
Count Ciano at the signing of Munich Agreement.
Ancient Greek colonies and their
groupings in Southern Italy.
NW Greek Achaean Doric
Map of Etruscan civilisation.
Ötzi the oldest mummy in the world discovered in the southern Alps (region of Trentino-Alto Adige) with extremely sophisticated equipment to that time. 4th millennium BC.
Sheets with the iconic picture of
Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, exposed as a sign of protest against Italian Mafia. They read: "You did not kill them: their ideas walk on our legs".
Mussolini reviewing adolescent soldiers, late 1944.
Regional seat of
RAI in Cosenza.
Secondary, widely spoken or understood.
Understood by some due to former colonisation.
the EUR in Rome is a perfect example of modern Italian architecture
Silvio Berlusconi, Prime Minister of Italy for almost ten years between 1994 and 2011.
Commedia dell'arte troupe in a late 16th-century Flemish painting.
Giuseppe Verdi, one of Italy's greatest opera composers. Portrait by
Imperial ambitions of Fascist Italy in Europe, 1936.
The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci, possibly one of the most famous and iconic examples of Italian art
Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence, which has the biggest brick dome in the world, and is considered a masterpiece of Italian architecture and world architecture.
Umberto II, the last King of Italy, was exiled to Portugal.
Garibaldi into Naples on 7 September 1860
Colosseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire.
Insurgents celebrating the liberation of Naples after the
Four days of Naples (27–30 September 1943).
Roman Empire provided an inspiration for the medieval European. Although the Holy Roman Empire rarely acquired a serious geopolitical reality, it possessed great symbolic significance.