Portal:Jurassic/Natural world articles/13

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Artist's restoration of Ctenorhabdotus capulus.

Ctenophora is a phylum of marine animals characterized by "combs" consisting of cilia they use for swimming. Adults range from a few millimeters to 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) in size. Their bodies consist of a mass of jelly, with one layer two cells thick on the outside and another lining the internal cavity. Almost all ctenophores consume tiny animal prey. The phylum has a wide range of body forms, including the egg-shaped cydippids with retractable tentacles that capture prey, the flat generally combless platyctenids, and the large-mouthed beroids, which prey on other ctenophores.

Despite their soft, gelatinous bodies, fossils thought to represent ctenophores have been found in lagerstätten as far back as the early Cambrian, about 525 million years ago. The position of the ctenophores in the tree of life has long been debated, and the majority view at present, based on molecular phylogenetics, is that ctenophores are more primitive than the sponges, which are more primitive than the cnidarians and bilaterians. A recent molecular phylogenetics analysis concluded that the common ancestor of all modern ctenophores was cydippid-like, and that all the modern groups appeared relatively recently, probably after the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago. Evidence accumulating since the 1980s indicates that the "cydippids" are not monophyletic, in other words do not include all and only the descendants of a single common ancestor, because all the other traditional ctenophore groups are descendants of various cydippids. (see more...)