Kolkata (Bengali: কলকাতা ; [ˈkolkat̪a]), formerly Calcutta is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly. When referred to as "Kolkata", it usually includes the suburbs, and thus its population exceeds 15 million, making it India's second-largest city and urban agglomeration.This also makes it the world's 14th largest metropolitan area.
Calcutta served as the capital of India during the British Raj until 1911. Once the centre of modern education, industry, science, culture and politics in India, Kolkata has witnessed intense political violence, clashes and economic stagnation since 1954. Since the year 2000, economic rejuvenation has spurred in the city's growth. Like other metropolitan cities in India, Kolkata continues to struggle with the problems of urbanisation: poverty, pollution and traffic congestion.
Kolkata is noted for its revolutionary history, ranging from the Indian struggle for independence to the leftist and trade union movements.
Kolkata is also known worldwide for its many bridges that link the city to its sister city of Howrah. The Kolkata Bridges include Howrah Bridge, Vidyasagar Setu, Vivekananda Setu, Nivedita Setu, and Jubilee Bridge (India).
The University of Calcutta
[কলিকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়], founded on 24 January, 1857 at the time of Lord Canning
as the Governor-General of India
, is the first multidisciplinary modern university in South East Asia. It is one of the prestigious university ever built in India. The renaissance in the nineteenth century Bengal was largely influenced by the educational reform initiated by this university. Innumerable great personalities of Bengal as well as India were directly or indirectly linked to this university. The University Grants Commission
declared it as a "Centre with Potential for Excellence." Though its affiliations to different colleges has been greatly reduced nowadays by introducing of several other universities in the state, it still remains as one of the glory of Bengal.