Portal:Criminal justice

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Criminal justice is the system of practices, and organizations, used by national and local governments, directed at maintaining social control, deterring and controlling crime, and sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation. The primary agencies charged with these responsibilities are law enforcement (police and prosecutors), courts, defense attorneys and local jails and prisons which administer the procedures for arrest, charging, adjudication and punishment of those found guilty. When processing the accused through the criminal justice system, government must keep within the framework of laws that protect individual rights. The pursuit of criminal justice is, like all forms of "justice", "fairness" or "process", essentially the pursuit of an ideal. Throughout history, criminal justice has taken on many different forms which often reflect the cultural mores of society.
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The Prisoner's dilemma is a classic example of a non-zero-sum game that demonstrates a conflict between rational individual behavior and the benefits of cooperation in certain situations. In political science, the Prisoner's Dilemma is often used to illustrate the problem of two states engaged in an arms race. It is fundamental to certain theories of human cooperation and trust. On the assumption that transactions between two people requiring trust can be modelled by the Prisoner's Dilemma, cooperative behavior in populations may be modelled by a multi-player, iterated, version of the game. It has, consequently, fascinated many scholars over the years.

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Demonstration of police dogs in Houten, the Netherlands
Credit: Pethan

A police dog is a dog that is trained specifically to assist police and similar law-enforcement personnel with their work. They can also be known as a K9 unit (a homophone for canine), this is especially prevalent in the United States. The term is sometimes associated with German Shepherd dogs because of the long history of the use of the German Shepherd by the police and military for public order enforcement (and some forces use German Shepherds exclusively).


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Jonathan Wild in the condemned cell at Newgate Prison
Jonathan Wild was perhaps the most famous criminal of London, if not of the United Kingdom, in the 18th century, both because of his own actions and the uses novelists, playwrights, and political satirists made of them. He invented a scheme which allowed him to run one of the most successful gangs of thieves of the era, all the while appearing to be the nation's leading policeman. He manipulated the press and the nation's fears to become the most loved public figure of the 1720s; this love turned to hatred when his villainy was exposed. After his death, he became a symbol of naked corruption and hypocrisy.

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Georg Christoph Lichtenberg
When we execute a murderer, we probably make the same mistake as a child who strikes a chair it has bumped into.

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