Linda Anne Eastman
(17 July 1867-5 April 1963)
was an American librarian
. She was selected by the American Library Association
as one of the 100 most important librarians of the 20th century.
Eastman served as the head Librarian of the Cleveland Public Library from 1918 to 1938 and president of the American Library Association from 1928 to 1929. At the time of her appointment in Cleveland, she was the first woman to head a library system the size of Cleveland’s. She was also a founding member and later president of the Ohio Library Association, and a professor of Library Science at Case Western Reserve University.
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Juliette Hampton Morgan (February 21, 1914 – July 16, 1957) was a librarian and civil rights activist in Montgomery, Alabama. The only daughter from a well-to-do white family, Morgan was an early member of the community that pushed for integration. As a librarian she often spoke out against the acts of injustice she witnessed against African-Americans by writing letters to the Montgomery Advertiser, the local newspaper. She was castigated by the community for her racial views and was targeted by segregationists who broke her windows and burned a cross in her front yard. Unable to bear the strain caused by the unrelenting retaliation caused by her views, she took her own life.
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The Woodstock Library
is a branch of the Multnomah County Library
in southeast Portland, Oregon
, United States. The library's origins date back to 1908, when the people of the Woodstock neighborhood
established a reading room at the Woodstock Fire Station, which soon became one of fifteen "deposit stations" (packing crates that turned into two-shelf bookcases and could hold up to 50 books each). The Woodstock collection began as an assemblage of children's books
and was housed within a public school. In 1911, the station was replaced by a "sub-branch" library offering more books for adults and children, but without the reference works
and services available at regular branches. The collection moved into a larger facility in 1914, which became a full branch in 1917, offering additional resources and services. The library occupied a series of temporary locations during the 1920s–'40s. Construction began on Woodstock's permanent library building in 1959. It was dedicated on June 1 the following year, the fourth community library built by Multnomah County. Until the mid-1990s the library was maintained as-is with only regular maintenance, though capacity strained as public use grew and new technologies demanded additional shelf space. In 1995, the City of Portland's Bureau of Planning released the "Adopted Woodstock Neighborhood Plan", which included a policy to improve the branch and its services. In 1996, the county adopted a $28 million bond measure
to renovate some branches and upgrade technology throughout the system. Given multiple issues with the existing building, including structural problems and non-compliance with building codes, Multnomah County Library determined reconstruction was necessary. The library was demolished in January 1999. The current 7,500-square-foot (700 m2
) Woodstock Library building was completed in 2000. It has a "lantern-like" quality and has received multiple awards for its design. In addition to offering the Multnomah County Library catalog, which contains two million books, periodicals and other materials, the library houses collections in Chinese and Spanish and employs Chinese-speaking staff.
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The Mark O. Hatfield Library
is the main library at Willamette University
in Salem, Oregon
, United States. Opened in 1986, it is a member of the Hatfield Library Consortium along with several library lending networks and is a designated Federal depository library
. Willamette's original library was established in 1844, two years after the school was founded. The library was housed in Waller Hall
before moving to its own building (now Smullin Hall) designed by Pietro Belluschi
in 1938. The Hatfield library building stands two-stories tall and is located near the center of the campus. The library contains over 350,000 volumes overall in its collections, and includes the school's archives
. Designed by MDWR Architects, the red-brick building has glass edifices on two sides and a clocktower
outside the main entrance. The building also includes a 24-hour study area, private study rooms, and a classroom. The academic library
is named in honor of former Senator Mark O. Hatfield
, a 1943 graduate of Willamette and former member of the faculty, and the library houses his personal papers and a collection of his books.
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The Valley Library
is the primary library
of Oregon State University
and is located at the school's main campus in Corvallis
in the U.S.
state of Oregon
. Established in 1887, the school built its first library building in 1918, what is now Kidder Hall. The current building opened in 1963 as the William Jasper Kerr Library and was expanded and renamed in 1999 as The Valley Library. The library is named for philanthropist F. Wayne Valley
, who played football for Oregon State. One of three libraries for Oregon State, The Valley Library stores more than 1.4 million volumes, 14,000 serials, and more than 500,000 maps and government documents. It is designated as a Federal Depository Library
and is also a repository for state documents. The six-story library building is of a contemporary, neoclassical style
with a red-brick exterior highlighted by white sections along the top and on part of the eastern side. The eastern side includes a white-faced rotunda
that includes a two-story atrium on the main floor.
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The American Society for Information Science and Technology (also referred to as ASIST or ASIS&T) is an organization of information professionals. Established in 1937, the organization sponsors an annual conference and publishes proceedings from this conference under the Annual Review of Information Science and Technology series; provides administration and electronic communications support for interest-based organizational groups referred to as SIGs; provides administration for geographically defined chapter groups; publishes the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (also known as JASIST); publishes a society bulletin; provides job availability oriented communications support; and provides organizational support for continuing education programs for information professionals.
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is the removal or withholding of information from the public
by a controlling group or body. Typically censorship is done by governments
, religious groups, or the mass media
, although other forms of censorship exist. The withholding of official secrets
, commercial secrets, intellectual property
, and privileged lawyer-client communication is not usually described as censorship when it remains within reasonable bounds. Because of this, the term "censorship" often carries with it a sense of untoward, inappropriate or repressive secrecy.
Censorship is closely related to the concepts of freedom of speech and freedom of expression. When overused, it is often associated with human rights abuse, dictatorship and repression.
The term "censorship" is often used as a pejorative term to signify a belief that a group controlling certain information is using this control improperly or for its own benefit, or preventing others from accessing information that should be made readily accessible (often so that conclusions drawn can be verified).
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, intellectual property
(IP) is an umbrella term
for various legal entitlements
which attach to certain names, written and recorded media, and inventions. The holders of these legal entitlements are generally entitled to exercise various exclusive rights
in relation to the subject matter of the IP. The term intellectual property
reflects the idea that this subject matter is the product of the mind
or the intellect
, though the term is a matter of some controversy.
Intellectual property laws and enforcement vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. There are inter-governmental efforts to harmonise them through international treaties such as the 1994 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs), while other treaties may facilitate registration in more than one jurisdiction at a time. Enforcement of copyright, as well as disagreements over medical and software patents, have so far prevented the emergence of a cohesive international system.
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An information society is a society in which the creation, distribution, diffusion, use, and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity. The knowledge economy is its economic counterpart whereby wealth is created through the economic exploitation of understanding.
Specific to this kind of society is the central position information technology has for production, economy, and society at large. Information society is seen as the successor to industrial society. Closely related concepts are the post-industrial society (Daniel Bell), post-fordism, post-modern society, knowledge society, Telematic Society, Information Revolution, and network society (Manuel Castells).
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is the collecting
. While many book lovers, known as bibliophiles
, accumulate volumes for a personal library
, the serious book collector is interested in the physical books themselves, not just their content. For instance, many collectors seek out first editions
of books, or acquire copies of every work written by a particular author or on a particular subject. A lover of books is sometimes also called a bookman
, but the latter often has a broader meaning.
Basic collecting is quite easy; there are billions of books in the world, and thousands of bookstores, both physical and virtual. There is an active market in all types of works, going all the way back to illuminated manuscripts. While manuscript books are all expensive, even incunabula (books printed in the 15th century) can be found for several hundred US dollars, and century-old books often cost under ten dollars.
Advanced collectors may pursue the great rarities; the Gutenberg Bible and Shakespeare's First Folio are famous, and expensive. Unusual items include the "book" of squares of native textiles brought back from the South Seas by Captain Cook. More practical for the collector of average means is to collect all the first editions of a favorite modern author.
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The British Library
) is the national library
of the United Kingdom
. It is based in London
and Boston Spa
and is one of the world's most significant research libraries
, holding over 150 million items. The Library's collections include around 25 million books, along with substantial additional collection of manuscripts and historical items dating back as far as 300 BC
. As of March 2004 the Library held 11.2 million monographs
and received more than 41,500 regular serials
. As a legal deposit
library, the BL receives copies of nearly all books produced in the United Kingdom, including all foreign books distributed in the UK. It also purchases many items which are only printed abroad. The British Library adds some 3 million items every year.
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The Bibliothèque nationale de France
) is the National Library
, located in Paris. It is intended to be the repository of all that is published in France. The current president of the library is Jean-Noël Jeanneney
. The library traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre
by Charles V
. It expanded under Louis XIV
and opened to the public in 1720
. Following the series of regime changes in France, it became the Imperial National Library
and in 1868
was moved to newly constructed buildings on the rue de Richelieu
designed by Henri Labrouste
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The Library of Congress
is the de facto national library
of the United States
and the research arm of the United States Congress
. Located in Washington, D.C.
, it is one of the largest and most important libraries in the world. Its collections include more than 30 million catalogued books and other print materials in 470 languages, more than 58 million manuscripts, the largest rare book collection in North America
, including a Gutenberg Bible
, one of only three perfect vellum copies known to exist, over 1 million US Government
publications, 1 million issues of world newspapers
spanning the past three centuries, 33,000 bound newspaper volumes, 500,000 microfilm
reels, over 6,000 comic book
titles, the world's largest collection of legal materials, films
, 4.8 million maps
, sheet music
, and 2.7 million sound recordings
. The head of the Library is the Librarian of Congress
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which were built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman Andrew Carnegie
. Over 2,500 Carnegie libraries were built, including public
and university libraries
. Carnegie earned the nickname Patron Saint of Libraries
Of the 2,509 libraries funded between 1883 and 1929, 1,689 were built in the United States, 660 in Britain and Ireland, 156 in Canada, and others in Australia, New Zealand, the Caribbean, and Fiji. Very few towns that requested a grant and agreed to his terms were refused. When the last grant was made in 1919, there were 3,500 libraries in the United States, nearly half of them paid for by Carnegie.
In the early 20th century, a Carnegie library was the most imposing structure in hundreds of small American communities from Maine to California. Contrary to the belief of many people, most of the library buildings were unique, displaying a number of different Beaux-Arts and other architectural styles, including Italian Renaissance, Baroque, Classical Revival and Spanish Colonial. Each style was chosen by the community and was typically simple and formal, welcoming patrons to enter through a prominent doorway, nearly always accessed via a staircase. The staircase was intended to show that the person was elevating himself. Similarly, outside virtually every branch a lamppost or lantern symbolized enlightenment.
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Information retrieval (IR) is the science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching for metadata which describe documents, or searching within databases, whether relational stand-alone databases or hypertextually-networked databases such as the World Wide Web. There is a common confusion, however, between data retrieval, document retrieval, information retrieval, and text retrieval, and each of these has its own bodies of literature, theory, praxis and technologies. IR is, like most nascent fields, interdisciplinary, based on computer science, mathematics, library science, information science, cognitive psychology, linguistics, statistics, physics.
Automated IR systems are used to reduce information overload. Many universities and public libraries use IR systems to provide access to books, journals, and other documents.
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The New York Public Library
), one of three public library
systems serving New York City
, is one of the leading libraries in the United States
. The other New York City public systems are those of Brooklyn
. The online catalogues of the Library are known by the acronyms CATNYP
for the four principal research libraries and LEO for the dozens of neighborhood branch libraries.
The Public Library's main building on Fifth Avenue (pictured) is the crowning achievement of the Beaux-Arts architectural firm of Carrere and Hastings. Its status as one of the world's leading libraries is confirmed by its possession of (for instance) a Gutenberg Bible and a Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.
The NYPL maintains 86 neighborhood branch libraries including five central circulating libraries throughout The Bronx, Manhattan, and Staten Island (The Mid-Manhattan Library, The Donnell Library Center, The Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library, the circulating collections of the Science, Industry and Business Library, and the circulating collections of the Library for the Performing Arts) are all in or near midtown Manhattan and offer a wide range of in-depth collections, programs, and services, including the renowned Picture Collection at Mid-Manhattan Library and the Media Center at Donnell.
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The Royal Library of Alexandria
, was once the largest library
in the world. It is generally thought to have been founded at the beginning of the 3rd century BC
, during the reign of Ptolemy II of Egypt
. It was likely created after his father had built what would become the first part of the Library complex, the temple of the Muses
— the Museion
, Greek Μουσείον
(from which the modern English word museum
It has been reasonably established that the Library, or parts of the collection, were destroyed by fire on a number of occasions (library fires were common and replacement of handwritten manuscripts was very difficult, expensive and time-consuming). To this day, the details of the destruction (or destructions) remain a lively source of controversy. The Bibliotheca Alexandrina was inaugurated in 2003 near the site of the old Library.
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The Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) comprise a thesaurus (in the information technology sense) of subject headings, maintained by the United States Library of Congress, for use in bibliographic records. LC Subject Headings are an integral part of bibliographic control, which is the function by which libraries collect, organize and disseminate documents. LCSHs are applied to every item within a library’s collection, and facilitate a user’s access to items in the catalogue that pertain to similar subject matter. If users could only locate items by ‘title’ or other descriptive fields, such as ‘author’ or ‘publisher’, they would have to expend an enormous amount of time searching for items of related subject matter, and undoubtedly miss locating many items because of the ineffective and inefficient search capability.
The Subject Headings are published in five large red volumes, which are typically displayed in the reference sections of research libraries. They may also be searched online in the Library of Congress Classification Web, a subscription service, or free of charge at Library of Congress Authorities. The Library of Congress issues weekly updates. Once a library user has found the right subject headings, they are an excellent resource for finding relevant material in your library catalogue.
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Digital preservation refers to the management of digital information over time. Unlike the preservation of paper or microfilm, the preservation of digital information demands ongoing attention. This constant input of effort, time, and money to handle rapid technological and organisational advance is considered the main stumbling block for preserving digital information beyond a couple of years. Indeed, while we are still able to read our written heritage from several thousand years ago, the digital information created merely a decade ago is in serious danger of being lost.
Digital preservation can therefore be seen as the set of processes and activities that ensure continued access to information and all kinds of records, scientific and cultural heritage existing in digital formats.
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(OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online
access to digital scholarly material, primarily peer-reviewed research
articles in scholarly journals. OA was made possible by the advent of the Internet
The first major international statement on open access was the Budapest Open Access Initiative in February 2002. This provided a definition of open access, and has a growing list of signatories. Two further statements followed: the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing in June 2003 and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities in October 2003.
OA has since become the subject of much discussion amongst researchers, academics, librarians, university administrators, funding agencies, government officials, commercial publishers, and society publishers. Although there is substantial (though not universal) agreement on the concept of OA itself, there is considerable debate and discussion about the economics of funding open access publishing, and the reliability and economic effects of self-archiving.
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is a collection of information resources and services, organized for use, and maintained by a political body, institution
, or private individual. In the more traditional sense, it meant a collection of books
. This collection and services are used by people who choose not to — or cannot afford to — purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research.
However, with the collection of media other than books for storing information, many libraries are now also repositories and access points for maps, prints or other documents and artworks on various storage media such as microfilm, microfiche, audio tapes, CDs, LPs, cassettes, video tapes and DVDs, and provide public facilities to access CD-ROM and subscription databases and the Internet. Thus, modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. In addition to providing materials, they also provide the services of specialists who are experts in matters related to finding and organizing information and interpreting information needs, called librarians.
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There is no formal nomination process for adding a new article to the selected articles collection. Selected articles should highlight the strength and diversity of what the visual arts has to offer. While selections do not necessarily need to be FA or GA status, they certainly should not be stubs.
Feel free to leave any suggestions for a selected article in this section. Comments are helpful.
If you are feeling ambitious, the instructions for adding an entry to the selected article collection are outlined below. Any questions or disagreements about the appropriateness of an entry should be discussed on the talk page.