is a term that does not have a universally accepted definition, but which has variably included all written work; writing that possesses literary merit; and language that foregrounds literariness, as opposed to ordinary language
the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura
"writing formed with letters", although some definitions include spoken or sung texts
. Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction
, and whether it is poetry
; it can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel
, short story
; and works are often categorised according to historical periods, or according to their adherence to certain aesthetic
features or expectations (genre
Literature may consist of texts based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), a category that may also include polemical works, biographies, and reflective essays, or it may consist of texts based on imagination (such as fiction, poetry, or drama). Literature written in poetry emphasizes the aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as sound, symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, ordinary meanings, while literature written in prose applies ordinary grammatical structure and the natural flow of speech. Literature can also be classified according to historical periods, genres, and political influences. While the concept of genre has broadened over the centuries, in general, a genre consists of artistic works that fall within a certain central theme; examples of genre include romance, mystery, crime, fantasy, erotica, and adventure, among others.
More about literature…
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly
, is an anti-slavery
novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe
. Published in 1852, the novel "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War
Stowe, a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Seminary and an active abolitionist, featured the character of Uncle Tom, a long-suffering black slave around whom the stories of other characters revolve. The sentimental novel depicts the reality of slavery while also asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings.
Uncle Tom's Cabin was the best-selling novel of the 19th century, and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible. It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. In the first year after it was published, 300,000 copies of the book were sold in the United States; one million copies were sold in Great Britain. In 1855, three years after it was published, it was called "the most popular novel of our day." In recent years, however, negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have, to an extent, overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool."
Francis bin Fathallah bin Nasrallah Marrash
(June 1836 – 1873) was a Syrian
writer and poet of the Nahda
movement—the Arabic renaissance—and a physician. Most of his works revolve around science, history and religion, analysed under an epistemological
light. He travelled through the Middle East and France in his youth, and after some medical training and a year of practice in his native Aleppo
, during which he wrote several works, he enrolled in a medical school in Paris; yet, declining health and growing blindness forced him to return to Aleppo, where he produced more literary works until his early death.
Middle Eastern historian Matti Moosa considered Marrash to be the first truly cosmopolitan Arab intellectual and writer of modern times. Marrash adhered to the principles of the French Revolution and defended them in his own works, implicitly criticising Ottoman rule in the Middle East. He was also influential in introducing French romanticism in the Arab world, especially through his use of poetic prose and prose poetry, of which his writings were the first examples in modern Arabic literature, according to Salma Khadra Jayyusi and Shmuel Moreh. His modes of thinking and feeling, and ways of expressing them, have had a lasting influence on contemporary Arab thought and on the Mahjari poets.
||Reader, I think proper, before we proceed any farther together, to acquaint thee that I intend to digress, through this whole history, as often as I see occasion, of which I am myself a better judge than any pitiful critic whatever; and here I must desire all those critics to mind their own business, and not to intermeddle with affairs or works which no ways concern them; for till they produce the authority by which they are constituted judges, I shall not plead to their jurisdiction.
|— Henry Fielding, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
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A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys is a children's book written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in which he rewrites myths from Greek mythology. This illustration is from his retelling of the story of King Midas, who wished for and was granted the ability to turn everything he touched with his hands into gold. In Hawthorne's retelling, among the things Midas turned to gold was his daughter.