Portal:Logic/Selected article

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Usage[edit]

The layout design for these subpages is at Portal:Logic/Selected article/Layout.

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Selected articles list[edit]

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The Venn diagram of p or q

In logic and mathematics, or, also known as logical disjunction or inclusive disjunction is a logical operator that results in true whenever one or more of its operands are true. In grammar, or is a coordinating conjunction.

Logical disjunction is an operation on two logical values, typically the values of two propositions, that produces a value of false if and only if both of its operands are false. More generally a disjunction is a logical formula that can have one or more literals separated only by ORs. A single literal is often considered to be a degenerate disjunction.


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Aristoteles Logica 1570 Biblioteca Huelva.jpg

The history of logic is the study of the development of the science of valid inference (logic). While many cultures have employed intricate systems of reasoning, and logical methods are evident in all human thought, an explicit analysis of the principles of reasoning was developed only in three traditions: those of China, India, and Greece. Of these, only the treatment of logic descending from the Greek tradition, particularly Aristotelian logic, found wide application and acceptance in science and mathematics. The Greek tradition was further developed by Islamic logicians and then medieval European logicians. Not until the 19th century does the next great advance in logic arise, with the development of symbolic logic by George Boole and its subsequent development into formal calculable logical systems by Gottlob Frege and set theorists such as Georg Cantor and Giuseppe Peano, ushering in the Information Age.

Logic was known as 'dialectic' or 'analytic' in Ancient Greece. The word 'logic' (from the Greek logos, meaning discourse or sentence) does not appear in the modern sense until the commentaries of Alexander of Aphrodisias, writing in the third century A.D.


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This diagram shows the syntactic entities which may be constructed from formal languages. The symbols and strings of symbols may be broadly divided into nonsense and well-formed formulas. A formal language can be thought of as identical to the set of its well-formed formulas. The set of well-formed formulas may be broadly divided into theorems and non-theorems. However, quite often, a formal system will simply define all of its well-formed formula as theorems.[1]

In the formal languages used in mathematical logic and computer science, a well-formed formula or simply formula[2] (often abbreviated wff, pronounced "wiff" or "wuff") is an idea, abstraction or concept which is expressed using the symbols and formation rules (also called the formal grammar) of a particular formal language. To say that a string of symbols is a wff with respect to a given formal grammar is equivalent to saying that belongs to the language generated by . A formal language can be identified with the set of its wffs.


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Nominations[edit]

Feel free to add featured, top or high importance Logic articles to the above list. Other Logic-related articles may be nominated here.

  1. ^ Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, Douglas Hofstadter
  2. ^ Because non-well-formed formulas are rarely considered, some authors ignore them altogether. For these authors, "formula" and "well-formed formula" are synonyms. Other authors use the term "formula" for any string of symbols in the language; certain of these strings are then singled out as the well-formed formulas.