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The London Portal

London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea. London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core and financial centre − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that closely follow its medieval limits. The adjacent City of Westminster is an Inner London borough and has for centuries been the location of much of the national government. Thirty one additional boroughs north and south of the river also comprise modern London. London is governed by the mayor of London and the London Assembly.

London is one of the world's most important global cities and has been called the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment-friendly, and most-popular-for-work city. It exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation. London ranks 26th out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP. It is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers than any other city. As of 2020, London has the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in Europe, after Moscow. In 2019, London had the highest number of ultra high-net-worth individuals in Europe. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe, and London is home to highly ranked institutions such as Imperial College London in natural and applied sciences, and the London School of Economics in social sciences. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games.

London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2018 municipal population (corresponding to Greater London) was 8,908,081, the third-most populous of any city in Europe and accounts for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the third most populous in Europe, after Moscow and Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The London commuter belt is the second-most populous in Europe, after the Moscow Metropolitan Area, with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016.

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Tower of London from the Shard (8515883950).jpg

The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, which is separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078 and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite. The castle was also used as a prison from 1100 (Ranulf Flambard) until 1952 (Kray twins), although that was not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under kings Richard I, Henry III, and Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries. The general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite later activity on the site.

The Tower of London has played a prominent role in English history. It was besieged several times, and controlling it has been important to controlling the country. The Tower has served variously as an armoury, a treasury, a menagerie, the home of the Royal Mint, a public record office, and the home of the Crown Jewels of England. From the early 14th century until the reign of Charles II, a procession would be led from the Tower to Westminster Abbey on the coronation of a monarch. In the absence of the monarch, the Constable of the Tower is in charge of the castle. This was a powerful and trusted position in the medieval period. In the late 15th century, the castle was the prison of the Princes in the Tower. Under the Tudors, the Tower became used less as a royal residence, and despite attempts to refortify and repair the castle, its defensive systems lagged behind developments to deal with artillery. Read more...

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London , Kodachrome by Chalmers Butterfield edit.jpg
Photo credit: Chalmers Butterfield

Shaftesbury Avenue from Piccadilly Circus, in the West End, c. 1949. The Circus, a famous traffic intersection and public space in the City of Westminster was built in 1819 to connect Regent Street with the major shopping street of Piccadilly. Its status as a major traffic intersection has made it a busy meeting point and a tourist attraction in its own right.

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Head and shoulders picture of a young man with flowing medium length dark hair, a beard and moustache, and a huge floppy bow tie
Henry Wood, c. 1906

Sir Henry Joseph Wood CH (3 March 1869 – 19 August 1944) was an English conductor best known for his association with London's annual series of promenade concerts, known as the Proms. He conducted them for nearly half a century, introducing hundreds of new works to British audiences. After his death, the concerts were officially renamed in his honour as the "Henry Wood Promenade Concerts", although they continued to be generally referred to as "the Proms".

Born in modest circumstances to parents who encouraged his musical talent, Wood started his career as an organist. During his studies at the Royal Academy of Music, he came under the influence of the voice teacher Manuel Garcia and became his accompanist. After similar work for Richard D'Oyly Carte's opera companies on the works of Arthur Sullivan and others, Wood became the conductor of a small operatic touring company. He was soon engaged by the larger Carl Rosa Opera Company. One notable event in his operatic career was conducting the British premiere of Tchaikovsky's Eugene Onegin in 1892. Read more...

Selected quotation

George Bruce, 7th Lord Balfour of Burleigh, quoted, Sayings of the Week, The Observer, 1 October 1944.

Did you know...

The "Circle of Lebanon" in Highgate Cemetery, London

General images

The following are images from various London-related articles on Wikipedia.


London has one of the oldest and largest public transport systems in the world. Many components of its transport system, such as the double-decker bus, the Hackney Carriage black taxi and the Tube, are internationally recognised symbols of London.

The majority of transport services in the capital are provided by Transport for London (TfL), an executive agency of the Mayor of London. The Oyster card is accepted as payment across most TfL-controlled transport modes. In the past ten years TfL has invested heavily in walking and cycling to promote more sustainable travel choices in London, including a Velib-style bike hire scheme which opened in Summer 2010.

Routemaster LDS402A.jpg Hackney carriage.jpg Tramlink-Beckenham Jn.jpg BA Planes T4 2004.jpg

London has a comprehensive rail network with several major railway stations. London has two international train stations, at St. Pancras railway station and Stratford International, which connect London to mainland Europe through the Eurostar service. London also has six international airports.

In addition to public transport, London is the start point for a number of motorway routes. The M25 is an orbital motorway which enables vehicles to avoid travelling through central London and is one of the busiest motorways in Europe.

Wikipedia Recognised content on London

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1908 Summer Olympics medal table · 1910 London to Manchester air race · 1948 Summer Olympics medal table · 1993 Boat Race · 2003 Boat Race · 2012 Boat Race · Albert Bridge · Aldwych tube station · Anne of Denmark · Harriet Arbuthnot · Arsenal F.C. · History of Arsenal F.C. (1886–1966) · Albert Stanley, 1st Baron Ashfield · Alice Ayres · Baden-Powell House · BAE Systems · Baker Street and Waterloo Railway · Enid Blyton · Battersea Bridge · Battle of Barnet · Horatio Bottomley · David Bowie · Boydell Shakespeare Gallery · Brown Dog affair · Bruce Castle · Buckingham Palace · William Henry Bury · Kate Bush · Elizabeth Canning · Caroline of Ansbach · Central London Railway · Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway · Charles II of England · Chief Mouser to the Cabinet Office · Chelsea Bridge · Chelsea F.C. · Christopher Smart's asylum confinement · Churches preserved by the Churches Conservation Trust in Southeast England · City and South London Railway · Cleveland Street scandal · Cock Lane ghost · Covent Garden · Noël Coward · Charles Darwin · East End of London · Edward III of England · Edward VI of England · Elizabeth I of England · English National Opera · Edmund Evans · An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump · Gilbert Foliot · Former and unopened London Underground stations · Robin Friday · Prince George of Denmark · George IV of the United Kingdom · John Gielgud · Gray's Inn · Great Fire of London · Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway · Great Stink · Stanley Green · Joseph Grimaldi · Gropecunt Lane · Richard Hakluyt · Harris's List of Covent Garden Ladies · Death of Jimi Hendrix · Her Majesty's Theatre · Herne Hill railway station · Georgette Heyer · Henry III of England · Charles Holden · Hoxne Hoard · Len Hutton · Iranian Embassy siege · Jack the Ripper · Jack the Ripper: The Final Solution · Hattie Jacques · James VI and I · Samuel Johnson · Early life of Samuel Johnson · The Kinks · Cosmo Gordon Lang · George Lansbury · Dan Leno · Marie Lloyd · Local nature reserves in Greater London · London Necropolis Company · London Underground stations · John Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan · The Magdalen Reading · Marshalsea · Mary II of England · Mellitus · Memorial to Heroic Self-Sacrifice · Metropolitan Railway · Henry Moore · Motörhead · Noel Park · Laurence Olivier · Emmeline Pankhurst · Peep Show episodes · Frank Pick · Peasants' Revolt · Pig-faced women · Harold Pinter · Postman's Park · Queens Park Rangers F.C. players · RAF Northolt · RAF Uxbridge · Talbot Baines Reed · Restoration spectacular · Richard II of England · Ralph Richardson · Richmond Bridge · Robert of Jumièges · Rokeby Venus · Rosetta Stone · Royal Gold Cup · Royal National College for the Blind · The Royal Opera · Sex Pistols · William Shakespeare · Jack Sheppard · Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London · Edgar Speyer · Streatham portrait · Tallest buildings and structures in London · Terry-Thomas · Theatre Royal, Drury Lane · Murder of Julia Martha Thomas · Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion · Timeline of the London Underground · Death of Ian Tomlinson · Tower of London · Turner Prize winners and nominees · Dick Turpin · Underground Electric Railways Company of London · Vauxhall Bridge · Venues of the 1948 Summer Olympics · Wandsworth Bridge · Whitechapel Murders · William Wilberforce · William III of England · William the Conqueror · Winners of the London Marathon · Mary Wollstonecraft · Timeline of Mary Wollstonecraft · Henry Wood

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1836 Boat Race · 1839 Boat Race · 1840 Boat Race · 1841 Boat Race · 1842 Boat Race · 1845 Boat Race · 1846 Boat Race · 1849 (March) Boat Race · 1849 (December) Boat Race · 1852 Boat Race · 1854 Boat Race · 1856 Boat Race · 1857 Boat Race · 1860 Boat Race · 1861 Boat Race · 1866 Boat Race · 1867 Boat Race · 1868 Boat Race · 1869 Boat Race · 1870 Boat Race · 1871 Boat Race · 1873 Boat Race · 1875 Boat Race · 1876 Boat Race · 1878 Boat Race · 1880 Boat Race · 1881 Boat Race · 1882 Boat Race · 1883 Boat Race · 1884 Boat Race · 1888 Boat Race · 1889 Boat Race · 1890 Boat Race · 1891 Boat Race · 1892 Boat Race · 1893 Boat Race · 1894 Boat Race · 1897 Boat Race · 1898 Boat Race · 1899 Boat Race · 1901 Boat Race · 1903 Boat Race · 1904 Boat Race · 1905 Boat Race · 1906 Boat Race · 1907 Boat Race · 1908 Boat Race · 1909 Boat Race · 1911 Boat Race · 1920 Boat Race · 1921 Boat Race · 1922 Boat Race · 1923 Boat Race · 1924 Boat Race · 1925 Boat Race · 1927 Boat Race · 1928 Boat Race · 1929 Boat Race · 1930 Boat Race · 1932 Boat Race · 1948 Summer Olympics torch relay · 1950 Boat Race · 1951 Boat Race · 1952 Boat Race · 1953 Boat Race · 1954 Boat Race · 1955 Boat Race · 1956 Boat Race · 1957 Boat Race · 1958 Boat Race · 1961 Boat Race · 1963 Boat Race · 1964 Boat Race · 1965 Boat Race · 1966 Boat Race · 1967 Football League Cup Final · 1968 Boat Race · 1970 Boat Race · 1971 Boat Race · 1973 Boat Race · 1974 Boat Race · 1975 Boat Race · 1976 Boat Race · 1977 Boat Race · 1978 Boat Race · 1979 Boat Race · 1980 Boat Race · 1981 Boat Race · 1982 Boat Race · 1983 Boat Race · 1984 Boat Race · 1985 Boat Race · 1986 Boat Race · 1987 Boat Race · 1988 Boat Race · 1989 Boat Race · 1990 Boat Race · 1991 Boat Race · 1992 Boat Race · 1993 Bishopsgate bombing · 1994 Boat Race · 1995 Boat Race · 1996 Boat Race · 1997 Boat Race · 1997–98 Arsenal F.C. season · 1998 Boat Race · 1999 Boat Race · 1999 FA Charity Shield · 2000 Boat Race · 2001 Boat Race · 2002 Boat Race · 2003 Boat Race · 2004 Boat Race · 2005 Boat Race · 2006 Boat Race · 2007 Boat Race · 2008 Boat Race · 2009 Boat Race · 2010 Boat Race · 2011 Boat Race · 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony · 2012 Summer Paralympics · 2013 Boat Race · 2014 Boat Race · 34 Montagu Square, Marylebone · A1 road in London · A215 road · Abbey Mills Mosque · Henry Allingham · Murder of Tom ap Rhys Pryce · Arsenal Stadium · Cicely Mary Barker · Joey Barton · Battersea Power Station · Baynard's Castle · BBC Symphony Orchestra · Kate Beckinsale · Belgian government in exile · Tony Benn · The Bill · Blackadder II · Blackwall Tunnel · Bloc Party · BOAC Flight 712 · Ernest Radcliffe Bond · James Bond · Boosey & Hawkes · Bow Back Rivers · John Boydell · British Airways · History of British Airways · British Asian Cup · British Library · Burney Relief · Cad and the Dandy · Cannons (house) · Casino Royale (1967 film) · Chiswick Bridge · Anjem Choudray · Churchill War Rooms · City of London School · The Clash · Murder of Victoria Climbié · Coldplay · College of Arms · Cranham · Elizabeth Cresswell · Charles Cruft · Crystal Palace · Crystal Palace Dinosaurs · Crystal Palace F.C. · History of Crystal Palace F.C. · Cyrus Cylinder · Daniel Day-Lewis · Death of Keith Blakelock · Denmark Street · Deptford · Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge · Dinner by Heston Blumenthal · District Railway · Doctor Who Prom (2008) · Doomsday(film) · The Dorchester · Down Street tube station · Dubstep · Dunstan · Eastcote House Gardens · Edward I of England · Embankment tube station · Emirates Stadium · Leo Fortune-West · Garrick's Temple to Shakespeare · Girlschool · Gloucester Road tube station · Mauricio González-Gordon y Díez · Gordon Ramsay Plane Food · Great Plague of London · Hugh Grant · Great Reality TV Swindle · Green Wing · George Grossmith · Gulf Oil · HMS Belfast (C35) · Hammerton's Ferry · Harmondsworth Great Barn · Hibiscus (restaurant) · Highgrove House, Eastcote · Hillingdon House · Holborn tube station · Edward Hollamby · Hot Fuzz · Anne Hyde · Ickenham · Imperial War Museum · Inns of Chancery · Iron Maiden · Jewel Tower · Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham... · Kingstonian F.C. · Knife Edge Two Piece 1962–65 · Nigella Lawson · Lemmons · Bernard Levin · Ken Livingstone · London · London Necropolis Railway · London Necropolis railway station · London Philharmonic Orchestra · London Symphony Orchestra · M11 link road protest · Madness (band) · Manor Farm, Ruislip · George Martin · Karl Marx · Mary I of England · Match Point · Freddie Mercury · Middlesex · Ed Miliband · Millwall F.C. · Millwall F.C.–West Ham United F.C. rivalry · Mongrels (TV series) · Morden tube station · William Morris · Carey Mulligan · National Gallery · National Police Memorial · NatWest · Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson · Isaac Newton · Notting Hill · Old St Paul's Cathedral · One Direction · Paper War of 1752–1753 · Charles Pearson · Pétrus (restaurant) · Prince Rupert of the Rhine · Quatermass and the Pit (film) · Queen's Hall · Question Time British National Party controversy · Daniel Radcliffe · RAF Eastcote · RAF West Ruislip · Relocation of Wimbledon F.C. to Milton Keynes · Richard Coeur de Lion (statue) · Richmond Park · Rock and Chips · Helen Rollason · Romford · Rose Tyler · Royal Artillery Memorial · Royal Philharmonic Orchestra · Royal Society · Ruislip · Ruislip-Northwood Urban District · Ruislip Woods · The Sarah Jane Adventures · Saturday (novel) · Savile Row · Senate House (University of London) · Serpentine (lake) · George Bernard Shaw · Smithfield, London · Smooth Radio (2010) · South Kensington tube station · Howard Staunton · Jamie Stuart · Jessie Stephen · The Stones in the Park · Arthur Sullivan · Swakeleys House · Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (2007 film) · Tipping the Velvet · Tipu's Tiger · The Tower House · Margaret Thatcher · Hugh Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard · Alan Turing · Up All Night Tour · Upminster · Upminster Bridge tube station · Uxbridge · V for Vendetta (film) · Vauxhall Gardens · Vindolanda tablets · Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps · Wanderers F.C. · Rachel Weisz · West Ham United F.C. · Westminster tube station · The Who · Oscar Wilde · Amy Winehouse · White Lies (band) · Wimbledon and Sutton Railway · Anna Wintour · Woolwich Ferry · Wulfstan · The Young Victoria

London Topics


WikiProject London

Simplified aims - (read more here):

Current major tasks:

  • Tag all relevant articles with the {{WPLondon}} template on their talk page.
  • Improve main article London to featured status.

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