Luxembourg (/ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/ (listen); Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg [ˈlətsəbuə̯ɕ] (listen); French: Luxembourg; German: Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Its capital, Luxembourg City, together with Brussels and Strasbourg, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French, German, and the national language, Luxembourgish (sometimes considered a dialect of German). The repeated invasions by Germany, especially in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union.
With an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi), it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In 2016, Luxembourg had a population of 576,249, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate. Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita. The City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city.
Graphical depiction of Luxembourg's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories
Jean Jacoby: Rugby (1928)
Claus Cito, the symbolic Gëlle Fra topping the Monument of Remembrance (1923)
Luxembourg City: The Passerelle, also known as the viaduct or old bridge, overlooking the Pétrusse river valley; it opened in 1861.
Nico Klopp: Loop in the Moselle at Greiveldange with Stadtbredimus (1930)
Photograph of the fortress of Luxembourg prior to demolition in 1867
Pierre Brandenbourg: Early photograph of Brasserie Clausen (1865)
Jean-Baptiste Fresez: Vianden near the Bridge (c. 1857)
The University of Luxembourg is the only university based in the country.
Notre-Dame Cathedral, Luxembourg City
The Grand Ducal Palace in Luxembourg City, the official residence of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Luxembourg City History Museum
Dominique Lang: Le Barrage (1913)
Historic map (undated) of Luxembourg city's fortifications
Frontier with German Empire's Alsace-Lorraine, from 1871 to 1918
Luxembourg is part of the Schengen Area, the EU single market, and the Eurozone (dark blue)
Typical Luxembourg countryside near Alscheid
The European Court of Justice, seated in Luxembourg City.
The largest towns are Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Dudelange, and Differdange.
Coin of the former Luxembourg franc in two of the country's three languages: French (obverse, left) and Luxembourgish (reverse, right)
The Hall of the Chamber of Deputies, the meeting place of the Luxembourgish national legislature, the Chamber of Deputies, in Luxembourg City
Signs in front of the Centre Drosbach on the Cloche d'or, in the city of Luxembourg
Luxembourg's international airline Luxair is based at Luxembourg Airport, the country's only international airport.
Charles IV, the 14th-century Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg
Nicolas Liez: View of Luxembourg from the Fetschenhof (1870)
Charly Gaul won three Grand Tours in his cycling career.
Judd mat Gaardebounen, served with boiled potatoes and Diekirch beer
Edward Steichen, Luxembourgish photographer and painter
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