Aboriginal peoples have inhabited what is now Manitoba for thousands of years. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was then called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg. The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance. The resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province.
The Geography of Manitoba is the easternmost of the three prairie provinces, and is located in the longitudinal center of Canada. It borders on Saskatchewan to the west, Ontario to the east, Nunavut to the north, and the American states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south. On comparative level, Manitoba ranges from 490 ft (150 m) to 980 ft (300 m) above sea level.Baldy Mountain, which is its highest point, is at 2727 ft (831 m). The northern 3/5 of the province is on the Canadian Shield. The northernmost regions of Manitoba lie in tundra and permafrost (permanently frozen subsoil).
Manitoba has an extreme climate, but southern latitudes allow extensive growth for agriculture. The northern area of the region ranges from coniferous forests to muskeg to tundra in the far north. Before settlement had occurred, a vast portion of southern Manitoba was either flood plain or swamp.. An extensive system for drainage ditches was required for construction throughout south central Manitoba to make the region suitable for cultivation.
Provencher ordained Taché a priest on October 12, 1845. He studied the basics of the Ojibwe language and was sent to start a mission in Île-à-la-Crosse. Later, he also became proficient in Cree and Athabaskan. In 1847, Rome created the diocese of the North-West. In June 1850, Taché was named bishop of Arath and Provencher's successor at the age of 27. He only received the news of his appointment in January 1851. He was consecrated a bishop on November 23, 1851 in Marseille by BishopEugene de Mazenode. Provencher died on June 7, 1853, and Taché became the bishop of St. Boniface.