A ninja (忍者)
or shinobi (忍び)
was a covert agent
in feudal Japan
. The functions of a ninja included espionage
, and surprise attacks. Their covert methods of waging irregular warfare
were deemed dishonorable and beneath the honor of the samurai
. Though shinobi
proper, as specially trained spies and mercenaries, appeared in the 15th century during the Sengoku period
(15th–17th centuries), antecedents may have existed as early as the 12th century.
In the unrest of the Sengoku period, mercenaries and spies for hire became active in Iga Province and the adjacent area around the village of Kōga, and it is from the area's clans that much of the knowledge of the ninja is drawn. Following the unification of Japan under the Tokugawa shogunate in the 17th century, the ninja faded into obscurity. A number of shinobi manuals, often based on Chinese military philosophy, were written in the 17th and 18th centuries, most notably the Bansenshukai (1676).
By the time of the Meiji Restoration (1868), shinobi had become a topic of popular imagination and mystery in Japan. Ninjas figured prominently in legend and folklore, where they were associated with legendary abilities such as invisibility, walking on water and control over the natural elements. As a consequence, their perception in popular culture is based more on such legend and folklore than on the spies of the Sengoku period.
" Levonovna Kentikian
: Սյուզի Կենտիկյան
; born Syuzanna Kentikyan
on 11 September 1987) is an Armenian-German professional boxer
. She was born in Yerevan
, Armenian SSR
, but left the country with her family at the age of five because of the Nagorno-Karabakh War
. Kentikian has lived in Hamburg
since 1996 and began boxing at the age of twelve. Following a successful amateur
career, she turned professional in 2005 upon signing with the Hamburg-based Spotlight Boxing promotion.
Kentikian is a two-time flyweight world champion, having held the World Boxing Association (WBA) female title from 2007 to 2012, and from 2013 to 2017. Additionally, she was the World Boxing Organization (WBO) flyweight champion from 2009 to 2012, and held the Women's International Boxing Federation (WIBF) title from 2007 to 2012 and 2015 to 2017.
During the 2009 WBA convention in Colombia she was named the first ever WBA female Super Champion. It was announced that this belt would be called "Susi Kentikian belt" for all other future Super Champions.