Science and technology have a long history in Mexico. Ancient Mexican civilizations developed mathematics, astronomy, and calendrics, and solved technological problems of water management for agriculture and flood control in Central Mexico. Following the Spanish conquest in 1521, New Spain
(colonial Mexico) was brought into the European sphere of science and technology. The Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico
, established in 1551, was a hub of intellectual and religious development in colonial Mexico for over a century. During the Spanish American Enlightenment
in Mexico, the colony made considerable progress in science, but following the war of independence and political instability in the early nineteenth century, progress stalled. During late 19th century under the regime of Porfirio Díaz
, the process of industrialization began in Mexico. Following the Mexican Revolution
, a ten-year civil war, Mexico made significant progress in science and technology. During the 20th century, new universities, such as the National Polytecnical Institute
, Monterrey Institute of Technology
and research institutes, such as those at the National Autonomous University of Mexico
, were established in Mexico.
According to the World Bank
, Mexico is Latin America's largest exporter of high-technology goods (High-technology exports are manufactured goods that involve high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery) with $40.7 billion worth of high-technology goods exports in 2012. Mexican high-technology exports accounted for 17% of all manufactured goods in the country in 2012 according to the World Bank. Read more...