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Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), making it the world's 13th-largest country by area; with approximately 126,014,024 inhabitants, it is the 10th-most-populous country and has the most Spanish-speakers. Mexico is organized as a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital and largest metropolis. Other major urban areas include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.
Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BC and is identified as one of the six cradles of civilization; it was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, most notably the Maya and the Aztecs. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the region from its base in Mexico City, establishing the colony of New Spain. The Catholic Church played an important role in spreading Christianity and the Spanish language, while also preserving some indigenous elements. Native populations were subjugated and heavily exploited to mine rich deposits of precious metals, which contributed to Spain's status as a major world power for the next three centuries, and to a massive influx of wealth and a price revolution in Western Europe. Over time, a distinct Mexican identity formed, based on a fusion of European and indigenous customs; this contributed to the successful Mexican War of Independence against Spain in 1821. (Full article...)
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The Battle of Lipantitlán, also known as the Battle of Nueces Crossing, was fought along the Nueces River on November 4, 1835 between the Mexican Army and Texian insurgents, as part of the Texas Revolution. After the Texian victory at the Battle of Goliad, only two Mexican garrisons remained in Texas, Fort Lipantitlán near San Patricio and the Alamo Mission at San Antonio de Béxar (modern-day San Antonio in the U.S. state of Texas). Fearing that Lipantitlán could be used as a base for the Mexican army to retake Goliad and angry that two of his men were imprisoned there, Texian commander Philip Dimmitt ordered his adjutant, Captain Ira Westover, to capture the fort.
The commander of Fort Lipantitlán, Nicolás Rodríguez, had been ordered to harass the Texian troops at Goliad. Rodríguez took the bulk of his men on an expedition; while they were gone, Westover's force arrived in San Patricio. On November 3, a local man persuaded the Mexican garrison to surrender, and the following day the Texians dismantled the fort. Rodríguez returned as the Texians were crossing the swollen Nueces River
to return to Goliad. The Mexican soldiers attacked, but the longer range of the Texians rifles soon forced them to retreat. One Texian was injured, 3–5 Mexican soldiers were killed, and 14–17 were wounded. (Full article...
Selected article -
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This is a Good article, an article that meets a core set of high editorial standards.
The cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) is a species of wren endemic to the deserts of the southwestern United States and northern and central Mexico. It is the state bird of Arizona, and the largest wren in the United States. Its plumage is brown, with black and white spots as markings. It has a distinctive white eyebrow that sweeps to the nape of the neck. The chest is white, whereas the underparts are cinnamon-buff colored. Both sexes appear similar. The tail, as well as flight feathers, are barred in black and white. Their song is a loud raspy chirrup; akin in the description of some ornithologists to the sound of a car engine that will not start. It is well-adapted to its native desert environment, and the birds can meet their water needs from their diet which consists chiefly of insects, but also of some plant matter. The cactus wren is a poor flier and generally forages for food on the ground. Ornithologists generally recognize seven subspecies, with the exact taxonomy under dispute.
Its common name
derives from their frequenting desert cactus
plants such as the saguaro
, building nests, roosting, and seeking protection from predators among them. Its bulky and globular nests are constructed of plant material and lined with feathers. They do not migrate
; instead, they establish and defend the territories
around their nests where they live all year-round. It lives in pairs, or as family groups from late spring through winter. Pairing among cactus wrens is monogamous
; in each breeding season
, the males chiefly build nests, the females incubate eggs, and both parents feed the young. (Full article...
Selected biography -
Agustín de Iturbide
Portrait as Emperor of Mexico by Primitivo Miranda, 1860
(Spanish pronunciation: [aɣusˈtin ðe ituɾˈβiðe] (listen)
; 27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824), full name Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu
and also known as Augustine of Mexico
, was a Mexican army
general and politician. During the Mexican War of Independence
, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City
on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence for Mexico. After securing the secession of Mexico from Spain, Iturbide was proclaimed president of the Regency in 1821; a year later, he was proclaimed Emperor of Mexico
, reigning briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823. In May 1823 he went into exile in Europe. When he returned to Mexico in July 1824, he was arrested and executed. He designed the Mexican flag
. (Full article...
In the news
- 29 November 2021 –
- Researchers from the National Autonomous University of Mexico discover two new antibiotic molecules inside the venom of a scorpion from the Diplocentrus genus, which may hold the properties to stop several different kinds of harmful bacteria and tumour cells. (The Yucatan Times)
- 26 November 2021 – 2021 Mexico bus crash
- A passenger bus crashes on a highway in San José del Rincón, Mexico, killing 19 people and injuring 32 others. (ABC News)
- 16 November 2021 –
- The Mexican Secretariat of National Defense announces that Rosalinda González Valencia, the wife of Jalisco New Generation Cartel leader Nemesio Oseguera "El Mencho" Cervantes, is re-arrested. González was previously detained in 2018 for allegedly running the finances of the cartel, but was released on bail. (BBC News)
- 31 October 2021 –
- One person is killed and 15 others are injured when a Pemex gas pipeline explodes in Puebla, Mexico. The Governor of Puebla, Miguel Barbosa Huerta, blames an illegal tap for the explosion. (The Canberra Times)
- The Mexican National Guard open fire against a vehicle carrying Cuban citizens, killing one person and wounding four more people. The guards said that "the vehicle didn't stopped when ordered to do so". (Reuters)
- 29 October 2021 – Economy of Mexico
- The National Institute of Statistics and Geography in Mexico shows that the economy shrank 0.2% in the third-quarter from the three previous months and the GDP also declined during the same period of time, both largely due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on businesses. (Reuters)
Selected fare or cuisine -
Store selling various Oaxacan moles
is a regional cuisine of Mexico, centered on the city of Oaxaca
, the capital of the state of the same name
located in southern Mexico. Oaxaca is one of Mexico's major gastronomic, historical, and gastro-historical centers whose cuisine is known internationally. Like the rest of Mexican cuisine
, Oaxacan food is based on staples such as corn, beans and chile peppers
, but there is a great variety of other ingredients and food preparations due to the influence of the state's varied geography and indigenous cultures. Corn and many beans were first cultivated in Oaxaca. Well known features of the cuisine include ingredients such as chocolate (often drunk in a hot preparation with spices and other flavorings), Oaxaca cheese
and grasshoppers (chapulines
) with dishes such as tlayudas
, Oaxacan style tamales
and seven notable varieties of mole sauce
. The cuisine has been praised and promoted by food experts such as Diana Kennedy
and Rick Bayless
and is part of the state's appeal for tourists. (Full article...
The following are images from various Mexico-related articles on Wikipedia.
Moctezuma Xocoyotzin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.
History of Mexico)
Comanchería, territory controlled by the Comaches, prior to 1850. (from
Kukulkan sits atop this pyramid with a total of 365 stairs on its four sides. At the spring and fall equinoxes, the sun casts a shadow in the shape of a serpent along the northern staircase. (from History of Mexico)
The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–900 CE. A temple to
La Constitución ha muerto). (from History of Mexico)
1903. Slogan on the protest banner reads: "The Constitution has died" (
History of Mexico)
Flag and coat of arms of the Mexican Empire superimposed a map of its territorial limits. Note the crown on the eagle. (from
Olmec colossal are uncertain, but their individualized features and distinctive headgear, as well as later Maya practice, suggest that these heads portray rulers rather than deities. (from History of Mexico)
The identities of the
History of Mexico)
1890 perhaps the streets of no other city present so diversified a picture as those of the city of Mexico. Every variety of costume, civil and religious, Natives and European, of the city and country, is intermingled in the crowd. (from
History of Mexico)
Rebel soldiers moving by rail during the Mexican Revolution. (from
Teotihuacan view of the Avenue of the Dead and the Pyramid of the Sun, from the Pyramid of the Moon. At its peak around 600 CE, Teotihuacan was the sixth-largest city in the world. It featured a rational grid plan and a two-mile-long main avenue. Its monumental pyramids echo the shapes of surrounding mountains. (from History of Mexico)
T'ah 'ak' Cha'an. (from History of Mexico)
Panel 3 from Cancuen, Guatemala, representing king
Tula portraying warriors armed with darts and spear-throwers reflect the military regime of the Toltecs, whose arrival in central Mexico coincided with the decline of the Maya. (from History of Mexico)
Colossal atlantids, pyramid B, Toltec, Tula, Mexico, ca. 900–1180 CE. Stone, each 16' high. The colossal statue-columns of
Ixmiquilpan occurred on September 25, 1866. between 350 soldiers of the Belgian Legion and Juarista forces, ending the battle with the victory of the latter. (from History of Mexico)
Partido Nacional Revolucionario, with the colors of the Mexican flag (from History of Mexico)
Logo of the
Nacional Financiera (NAFIN), the state development bank. (from History of Mexico)
History of Mexico)
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Friar Miguel de Herrera (1700–1789) (from
Lady Xoc, Maya, lintel 24 of temple 23, Yaxchilan, Mexico, ca. 725 ce. Limestone, 3'7" × 2' 6.5". British Museum, London. The Maya built vast complexes of temples, palaces, and plazas and decorated many with painted reliefs. (from History of Mexico)
Shield Jaguar and
History of Mexico)
Goddess, mural painting from the Tetitla apartment complex at Teotihuacan, Mexico, 650–750 CE. Pigments over clay and plaster. Elaborate mural paintings adorned Teotihuacan's elite residential compound. This example may depict the city's principal deity, a goddess wearing a jade mask and a large feathered headdress. (from
Tabasco (from History of Mexico)
Battle of Centla, first time a horse was use in battle in a war in the Americas. Mural in the Palacio Municipal of Paraíso,
Battle of Celaya (1915), earning him the nickname of Manco de Celaya ("the one-armed man of Celaya"). (from History of Mexico)
President Obregón. Note that he lost his right arm in the
Chacmool, Maya, from the Platform of the Eagles, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–90 CE. Stone, 4' 10.5" high. National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico city. Chacmools represent fallen warriors reclining on their backs with receptacles on their chests to receive sacrificial offerings. Excavators discovered one in the burial chamber inside the Castilloyo (from History of Mexico)
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