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Mexico (Spanish: México [ˈmexiko] (About this soundlisten); Nahuatl languages: Mēxihco), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos, About this soundlisten ), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, León and Tijuana.

Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan (part of Mexico City), which was administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain. Three centuries later, the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the colony's Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes. The Mexican–American War (1846–1848) led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, and the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century. The Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic.

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In the news

5 December 2018 –
Claudia Sheinbaum takes office as Head of Government of Mexico City, becoming the first woman and first Jewish person to serve as Mexico City's mayor. (JTA)
1 December 2018 – Presidency of Andrés Manuel López Obrador
Andrés Manuel López Obrador is sworn in as the 58th President of Mexico. (The Guardian)
30 November 2018 – 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit
The United States, Canada and Mexico sign the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement in Buenos Aires, replacing the North American Free Trade Agreement. (TTNews) (NPR)
25 November 2018 – Mexico–United States relations, Central American migrant caravans
The San Ysidro Port of Entry, the largest border crossing on the Mexico–United States border, is closed after U.S. border patrol agents fire tear gas at asylum-seeking Central American migrants attempting to enter into the United States. The events were triggered by Mexican police breaking up a migrant protest, resulting in a rush toward the border. (Reuters)
24 November 2018 – Mexico–United States relations
U.S. President Donald Trump announces that migrants seeking asylum at the southern border will wait in Mexico while their claims are processed in U.S. courts. Mexico's incoming foreign minister Marcelo Ebrard denies an agreement has been reached, and says "(no) specific proposal" has been received from the United States. Andrés Manuel López Obrador's administration will take power next Saturday, December 1. (USA Today) (BBC)
18 November 2018 – Central American migrant caravans
Hundreds of residents take to the streets in the Mexican city Tijuana, in protest of the arrival of thousands of migrants trying to get to the United States. (BBC)


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