Portal:Muhammad

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Muhammad

"Muhammad the Apostle of God"
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina

Muhammad (Arabic: مُحمّد‎; pronounced [muħammad]; Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet and God's messenger, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Born in approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at an early age; he was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib and Abu Talib's wife Fatimah bint Asad. Periodically, he would seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; later, at age 40, he reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, where he stated he received his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" (islām) to him is the right course of action (dīn), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.

Muhammad gained few early followers, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. To escape ongoing persecution, he sent some followers to Abyssinia in 615, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) later in 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent wars with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. By his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. Read more...

Timeline of Muhammad

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Muhammad
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Timeline of Muhammad in Mecca
Important dates and locations in the life of Muhammad
c. 569 Death of his father, Abdullah
c. 570 Possible date of birth: Monday, April 22 571 A.D, 12 Rabi al Awal: in Mecca Arabia
576 Death of his mother, Aminah
c. 583 his grand father transfers him to Syria
c. 595 Meets and marries Khadijah
597 Birth of Zainab, his first daughter, followed by: Ruqayyah, Umm Khultoom, and Fatima Zahra
610 Qur'anic revelation begins in the Cave of Hira on the Jabaal an Nur the " Mountain of Light" near Mecca
610 Prophethood begins at 40 years old: Angel Jebreel (Gabriel) said to appear to him on the mountain and call him: The Prophet of Allah
610 Begins in secret to gather followers in Mecca
c. 613 Begins spreading message of Islam publicly to all Meccans
c. 614 Heavy persecution of Muslims begins
c. 615 Emigration of a group of Muslims to Ethiopia
616 Banu Hashim clan boycott begins
619 The year of sorrows: Khadija (his wife) and Abu Talib (his uncle) die
619 Banu Hashim clan boycott ends
c. 620 Isra and Mi'raj (reported ascension to heaven to meet God)
622 Hijra, emigration to Medina (called Yathrib)
624 Battle of Badr
625 Battle of Uhud
627 Battle of the Trench (also known as the siege of Medina)
628 The Meccan tribe of Quraysh and the Muslim community in Medina signed a 10-year truce called the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
629 Conquest of Mecca
632 Farewell pilgrimage and death, in what is now Saudi Arabia
Timeline of Muhammad in Medina
c. 622 Emigrates to Medina (Hijra)
623 Caravan Raids begin
623 Al Kudr Invasion
624 Battle of Badr: Muslims defeat Meccans
624 Battle of Sawiq, Abu Sufyan escapes capture
624 Expulsion of Banu Qaynuqa
624 Invasion of Thi Amr, Muhammad raids Ghatafan tribes
624 Assassination of Khaled b. Sufyan & Abu Rafi
625 Battle of Uhud: Meccans defeat Muslims
625 Tragedy of Bir Maona and Al Raji
625 Invasion of Hamra al-Asad, successfully terrifies enemy to cause retreat
625 Banu Nadir expelled after Invasion
625 Invasion of Nejd, Badr and Dumatul Jandal
627 Battle of the Trench
627 Invasion of Banu Qurayza, successful siege
628 Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, gains access to Kaaba
628 Conquest of the Khaybar oasis
629 First hajj pilgrimage
629 Attack on Byzantine Empire fails: Battle of Mu'tah
630 Bloodless conquest of Mecca
630 Battle of Hunayn
630 Siege of Ta'if
631 Rules most of the Arabian peninsula
632 Attacks the Ghassanids: Tabuk duick
632 Farewell hajj pilgrimage
632 Death, on June 8 in Medina
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Muhammad (c. 22 April, 571–11 June, 632) is documented as having engaged as a diplomat during his propagation of Islam and leadership over the growing Muslim Ummah (community). He established a method of communication with other tribal or national leaders through letters,[1] assigned envoys,[2] or by visiting them personally, such as at Ta’if.[3] Instances of written correspondence include letters to Heraclius, the Negus and Khosrau. Although it is likely that Muhammad had initiated contact with other leaders within the Arabian Peninsula, some have questioned whether letters had been sent beyond these boundaries.[4]

When Muhammad arrived in Medina in 622, local tribes, mainly the Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj, had been feuding for several decades.[5] Muhammad addressed this by establishing the Constitution of Medina: a document which regulated interactions between the different factions, to which the respective parties agreed. This was a different role for him, as he had remained only a religious figure during his time in Mecca. The result was the eventual formation of a united community in Medina, as well as the political supremacy of Muhammad.

Wives of Muhammad

Ramla bint Abi Sufyan (Arabic: رملة بنت أبي سفيان‎; c.594-665) also known as Umm Habiba (Arabic: أم حبيبة‎) was a wife of Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers. She was the daughter of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and Safiyyah bint Abi al-'As. Abu Sufyan was the chief of the Umayya clan, and he was the leader of the whole Quraysh tribe and the most powerful opponent of Muhammad in the period 624-630. However, he later accepted Islam and became a Muslim warrior. The first Ummayad caliph, Muawiyah I, was Ramla's half-brother, and Uthman ibn Affan was her maternal first cousin and paternal second cousin.

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Companions of Muhammad

Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa
Abdullah ibn Abi Qhuhafah (Arabic: عبد الله بن أبي قحافة‎, translit. ʿAbd Allāh ibn Abī Quḥāfah), c. 573 CE – 23 August 634 CE, popularly known by his nickname Abu Bakr (Arabic: أبو بكر‎),[6] was a senior companion (Sahabi) and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE, when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death.[7] As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was also commonly known as The Truthful (Arabic: الصديقAl-Sadiq).[8]

As a young man, Abu Bakr became a merchant and he travelled extensively in Arabia and neighboring lands in the Middle East, through which he gained both wealth and experience. He eventually came to be recognized as the chief of his clan.[9] On his return from a business trip to Yemen, he was informed that in his absence Muhammad had openly declared his prophethood. Not long after, Abu Bakr accepted Islam and was the first person outside the family of Muhammad to openly become a Muslim. He was instrumental in the conversion of many people to the Islamic faith[10] and early in 623, Abu Bakr's daughter Aisha was married to Muhammad, strengthening the ties between the two men.[8]

Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor and was the father-in-law to Muhammad. During the lifetime of Muhammad, he was involved in several campaigns such as the Battle of Uhud, the Battle of the Trench, the Invasion of Banu Qurayza, Battle of Khaybar, the Conquest of Mecca, the Battle of Hunayn, the Siege of Ta'if and the Battle of Tabuk, where he was reported to have given all of his wealth for the preparation of this expedition.[11] He also participated in the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah and was made one of the witnesses over the pact.[11]

Abu Bakr's Caliphate lasted for a little over two years (or 27 months), ending with his death after an illness. Though the period of his caliphate was not long, it included successful invasions of the two most powerful empires of the time, a remarkable achievement in its own right. He set in motion a historical trajectory that in a few decades would create one of the largest empires in history.

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Did you know that:... The first person on Michael H. Hart's list in his first book The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History was Muhammad, chosen over Jesus or Moses.

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References

  1. ^ Irfan Shahid, Arabic literature to the end of the Umayyad period, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol 106, No. 3, p.531
  2. ^ al-Mubarakpuri(2002) p. 412
  3. ^ Watt (1974) p. 81
  4. ^ Forward (1998) pp. 28—29
  5. ^ Watt. al-Aus; Encyclopaedia of Islam
  6. ^ [1], from islam4theworld
  7. ^ [2], from Encyclopædia Britannica
  8. ^ a b Juan Eduardo Campo, "Encyclopedia of Islam", Infobase Publishing, 2009 [3]
  9. ^ The Middle East Journal by the Middle East Institute, Washington, D.C., published 1991
  10. ^ Shahid Ashraf, "Encyclopaedia of Holy Prophet and Companions", Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 2004, ISBN 81-261-1940-3 [4]
  11. ^ a b Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62

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