New South Wales (abbreviated NSW) is a state in the east of Australia. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales surrounds the whole of the Australian Capital Territory. New South Wales' capital city is Sydney, which is also the state's most populous city. As of June 2010 , the estimated population was 7,238,819, which was 34.5% of the population of Australia, making it Australia's most populous state.
The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 and originally comprised much of the Australian mainland, as well as Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Norfolk Island and Van Diemen's Land in addition to the area currently referred to as the state of New South Wales, which was formed during Federation in 1901. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania (established as a separate colony named Van Diemen's Land in 1825), South Australia (1836), New Zealand (1849), Victoria (1851) and Queensland (1859).
is an agricultural region
of south-western New South Wales
. The Riverina is distinguished from other Australian regions due to the combination of flat plains, warm to hot climate and an ample supply of water for irrigation
. This combination has allowed the Riverina to develop into one of the most productive and agriculturally diverse areas of Australia. Bordered on the south by the neighbouring state of Victoria
and on the east by the Great Dividing Range
, the Riverina covers those areas of New South Wales in the Murray
drainage zones to their confluence in the west.
Home to Aboriginal groups for over 40,000 years, the Riverina was originally settled by Europeans in the mid 19th century as a pastoral region providing beef and wool to markets in Australia and beyond. In the 20th century, development of major irrigation areas in the Murray and Murrumbidgee valleys has led to the introduction of crops such as rice and wine grapes.
The Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, are situated approximately 100 kilometres west of Sydney. They are a range of sandstone geological structures that reach to at least 1,190 metres AHD.