Odisha ( ( listen); formerly Orissa, ) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India. It is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam. It is the 9th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. It is also the 3rd most populous state of India in terms of tribal population. Odia (formerly known as Oriya) is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 33.2 million according to the 2001 Census.
The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. April 1 is celebrated as Odisha Day (Utkala Dibasa) . The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.
, also known as Madras Province
and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. George
, was a province of British India
. At its greatest extent, Madras Presidency included much of southern India, including the present-day Indian state of Tamil Nadu
, the Malabar region
of North Kerala
Islands, the Coastal Andhra
regions of Andhra Pradesh
districts of Orissa
and the Bellary
, Dakshina Kannada
, and Udupi
districts of Karnataka
. The capital was at Madras
, now known as Chennai.
The Presidency had its origins in the Agency of Fort St George established by the British East India Company soon after the purchase of the village of Madraspatnam in 1639. Madras was upgraded to a Presidency in 1652 before reverting to its previous status as an Agency. In 1684, Madras was elevated to a Presidency once again and Elihu Yale appointed its first President. From 1785 onwards, as per the provisions of the Pitt's India Act, the ruler of the Presidency of Fort St George was styled Governor instead of President and was made subordinate to the Governor-General at Calcutta. Madras made a significant contribution to the Indian freedom movement in the early decades of the 20th century. Madras was the first province in British India where the system of dyarchy was first implemented. The Presidency was dissolved when India became independent on August 15, 1947. On January 26, 1950, when the Republic of India was inaugurated, Madras was admitted as one of the states of the Indian Union.
The judicial, legislative and executive powers are rested in the Governor who is assisted by a Council whose constitution has been modified by reforms enacted in 1861, 1909, 1919 and 1935. As per the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms of 1919, a system of dyarchy was established and regular elections were conducted till the outbreak of the Second World War. The head of the government was known as Prime Minister. In 1908, the province comprised 22 districts each under a District Collector. Each district was further sub-divided into taluks and firqas. The smallest unit of administration was the village.
: गिरिधारिलाला केदिया Odia
: ଗିରିଧାରିଲାଲ କେଡ଼ିଆ
) (25 August 1936 – 19 December 2009) was an Indian businessman and entrepreneur. He served the Kala Vikash Kendra, Cuttack for 12 years as the Working President and Trustee. Kedia was also the founder and chairman of Image Institute of Technology & Management
. He was awarded the Samaj Gaurav award for his service. He was also awarded the Theater Movement Award by Global Peace Organization. Kedia was also a Lions Club District Governor for the years 1981-1982 for the undivided district 322C.
- Jun 16 – Tata Steel Launches Valueabled – a digital platform on Values and Beliefs (Source: odisha360.com)
- Jun 16 – Several trains were delayed due to protest against power cut near Lingaraj Station, Bhubaneswar (Source: odisha360.com)
- Jun 14 – Orissa team bagged 2 medals in the 14th Sub – Junior National Rowing Championship held at Kolkata (Source: odisha360.com)
The Chilka lake is the largest coastal lagoon in India.
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