The Olympic Games, or Olympics, are an international multi-sport event taking place every four years and comprising summer and winter games. Originally held in ancient Greece, they were revived before 1612 by English Captain and Attorney Robert Dover in Chipping Campden as a protest against Puritanism. British nobleman William Penny Brookes revived them again in 1850 in Much Wenlock before a French nobleman, Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin started the current Olympics in the late 19th century. The Summer Olympics (Games of the Olympiad) have been held every fourth year starting in 1896, except in 1916, 1940, and 1944 due to the First and Second World Wars. A special edition for winter sports, the Olympic Winter Games, was first held in 1924. The first winter Olympics competitions were held as a non-Olympic sports festival, but were declared to be official Games by the International Olympic Committee in 1925. Originally these were held in the same year as the Summer Olympics, but from 1994 onwards the Winter Games and the Summer Games have been held two years apart. The most recent games were Rio de Janeiro 2016 (Summer) and Sochi 2014 (Winter).
Nine cities submitting bids to host the 2012 Summer Olympics[a] were recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The Committee shortlisted five of them—London, Madrid, Moscow, New York City, and Paris—from which London eventually prevailed; it will become the first city to host the Olympic Games for a third time.The bidding process for the 2012 Olympics was considered one of the most hotly contested in the history of the IOC.Paris was seen as the front-runner for most of the campaign,but last-minute lobbying by London's supporters was one factor that led to the success of its bid.Madrid was regarded as one of the favourites, but the city did not receive enough votes to surpass Paris and London.After a technical evaluation of the nine original bids, the top five were shortlisted on May 18, 2004, becoming official candidates. The remaining applicant cities—Havana, Istanbul, Leipzig and Rio de Janeiro—were eliminated.