The Opera Portal
Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work (called an opera) which combines a text (called a libretto) and a musical score. Opera is part of the Western classical music tradition. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery and costumes and sometimes includes dance. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble.
Opera started in Italy at the end of the 16th century (with Jacopo Peri's lost Dafne, produced in Florence around 1597) and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Schütz in Germany, Lully in France, and Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century. However, in the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, except France, attracting foreign composers such as Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his "reform" operas in the 1760s. Today the most renowned figure of late 18th century opera is Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas, especially The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte, as well as The Magic Flute, a landmark in the German tradition.
The first third of the 19th century saw the highpoint of the bel canto style, with Rossini, Donizetti and Bellini all creating works that are still performed today. It also saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Meyerbeer. The mid to late 19th century is considered by some a golden age of opera, led by Wagner in Germany and Verdi in Italy. This 'golden age' developed through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Puccini and Strauss in the early 20th century. During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism (Schoenberg and Berg), Neo-Classicism (Stravinsky), and Minimalism (Philip Glass and John Adams). With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso became known to audiences beyond the circle of opera fans. Operas were also performed on (and written for) radio and television.
Trial by Jury
is a comic opera
in one act, with music by Arthur Sullivan
by W. S. Gilbert
. It was first produced on 25 March 1875, at London
's Royalty Theatre
, where it initially ran for 131 performances and was considered a hit, receiving critical praise and outrunning its popular companion piece, Jacques Offenbach
's La Périchole
. The story concerns a "breach of promise
of marriage" lawsuit in which the judge and legal system are the objects of lighthearted satire
. Gilbert based the libretto of Trial by Jury
on an operetta parody that he had written in 1868. The opera premiered more than three years after Gilbert and Sullivan
's only previous collaboration, Thespis
, an 1871–72 Christmas season entertainment. In the intervening years, both the author and composer were busy with separate projects. Beginning in 1873, Gilbert tried several times to get the opera produced before the impresario Richard D'Oyly Carte
suggested that he collaborate on it with Sullivan. Sullivan was pleased with the piece and promptly wrote the music. As with most Gilbert and Sullivan operas, the plot of Trial by Jury
is ludicrous, but the characters behave as if the events were perfectly reasonable. This narrative technique blunts some of the pointed barbs aimed at hypocrisy, especially of those in authority, and the sometimes base motives of supposedly respectable people and institutions. The success of Trial by Jury
launched the famous series of 13 collaborative works between Gilbert and Sullivan that came to be known as the Savoy Operas
The Israeli Opera performance of Aida in 2011. The Israeli Opera is the principal opera company of Israel. It was founded in 1985 after lack of Israeli government funding led to the demise of the Israel National Opera. The company also founded the Israeli Opera Festival which has performed large-scale outdoor productions, originally at Caesarea, and from 2010 in Masada, as with this production of Aida.
In this month
- 12 November 1898 – Enrique Granados' opera María del Carmen had its world premiere at the Teatro de Parish in Madrid.
- 13 November 1868 – Gioachino Rossini, the composer of The Barber of Seville, La Cenerentola, William Tell and 36 other operas, died in Paris at the age of 76.
- 17 November 1898 – Umberto Giordano's opera Fedora had its world premiere in Rome conducted by Giordano himself with Gemma Bellincioni in the title role.
- 17 November 1936 – The celebrated contralto, Ernestine Schumann-Heink, died in Los Angeles at the age of 75.
- 27 November 1758 – Senesino (pictured), the Italian castrato singer who created 17 leading roles in Handel's operas, died in Siena, the city of his birth, at the age of 72.
- 27 November 1880 – Rome's main opera house, the Teatro Costanzi (now known as the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma), was officially inaugurated with a performance of Rossini's Semiramide.
- 29 November 1797 – Gaetano Donizetti, the composer of Lucia di Lammermoor, La fille du régiment, and L'elisir d'amore was born in Bergamo.
- 30 November 1866 – The tenor and opera impresario, Andreas Dippel, was born in Kassel, Germany.
(September 20, 1885 – December 20, 1958) was a Canadian mezzo-soprano
and voice teacher. She performed and popularised songs by contemporary composers throughout her career and sang in the American premieres of several works by Satie
, including the title role in his Perséphone
. The niece of Lady (Zoé) Laurier
and Sir Wilfrid Laurier
, who were also her patrons
, she initially trained and performed in Europe. She then travelled to Java
and for four years immersed herself in its native music, which she introduced to North American audiences on her return. She retired from performing in 1937, and opened a voice studio in New York, where she became a founding member of the American Guild of Musical Artists
and served on its board of governors. Gauthier was praised for the many qualities her singing brought to music. The citation from the Campion Society of San Francisco, which she received in 1949, said: "...her rare open-mindedness and unorthodox enthusiasm having been initially responsible for the recognition of many vital and important modern composers"
The soprano aria "Ombra mai fù" from George Frideric Handel's Serse (1738) was rediscovered in the 19th century, and proved enduringly popular, being adapted to many voice types and as a popular instrumental piece ("Handel's Largo"). This 1920 recording by tenor Enrico Caruso is one of his last.
Did you know...
Things you can do