Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It borders the Pacific Ocean on the west, Washington on the north, Idaho on the east, and California and Nevada on the south. The Columbia and Snake Rivers form, respectively, much of its northern and eastern borders. Between two north-south mountain ranges in western Oregon—the Oregon Coast Range and the Cascade Mountain Range—lies the Willamette Valley, the most densely populated and agriculturally productive region of the state.
Oregon has one of the most diverse landscapes of any state in the U.S. It is well known for its tall, dense forests; its accessible and scenic Pacific coastline; and its rugged, glaciated Cascade volcanoes. Other areas include semiarid scrublands, prairies, and deserts that cover approximately half the state in eastern and north-central Oregon.
Oregon's population in 2010 was about 3.8 million, a 12% increase over 2000. Oregon's population is largely concentrated in the Willamette Valley, which stretches from Eugene through Salem and Corvallis to Portland, Oregon's largest city.
The origin of the name Oregon is unknown. One account, advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech, was endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 1700s, on which the Ouisiconsink (Wisconsin) River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so that there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon".
Dr. Douglas Engelbart
(January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an American inventor
descent. He was born in Oregon. As a World War II
naval radio technician
based in the Philippines
, Engelbart was inspired by Vannevar Bush
's article "As We May Think
". Engelbart received a Bachelor's degree
in electrical engineering from Oregon State University
in 1948, a B.Eng. from UC Berkeley
in 1952, and a Ph.D.
from UC Berkeley in 1955. At Stanford Research Institute
, Engelbart was the primary force behind the design and development of the On-Line System
, or NLS. He and his team at the Augmentation Research Center
developed computer-interface elements such as bit-mapped screens, groupware, hypertext
and precursors to the graphical user interface
. In 1967, Engelbart applied for and later received a patent
for the wooden shell with two metal wheels (computer mouse
). Engelbart later revealed that it was nicknamed the "mouse" because the tail came out the end. He would also work on the ARPANET
, the precursor of the Internet
. In later years he moved to the private firm Tymshare after SRI was transferred to the company. McDonnell Douglas
took over the company in 1982, and in 1986 he left the company. In 1988, he founded his own company, the Bootstrap Institute, which was located in Menlo Park, California
- October 1, 1938, the current Oregon State Capitol building is dedicated with speeches by dignitaries including Franklin D. Roosevelt.
- October 2, 1867, Willamette University opens Waller Hall, the oldest college building in the state still in use.
- October 4, 2002, the FBI arrests four of the Portland Seven on conspiracy charges for attempting to join Al-Qaeda.
- October 4, 1963, All-American at Oregon State and NBA All-Star A. C. Green is born in Portland.
- October 5, 1877, Chief Joseph surrenders to General Nelson Appleton Miles after leading the Nez Perce on a strategic retreat out of the Wallowa Valley.
- October 12, 1962, the Columbus Day Storm does extensive damage in Western Oregon.
- October 25, 1906, the vessel Peter Iredale shipwrecks on the Clatsop Spit where it still rests in what is now a state park.
- October 28, 1947, Governor Earl Snell, Oregon Secretary of State Robert S. Farrell, Jr., and State Senate President Marshall E. Cornett all die in a small plane crash in Southern Oregon.
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is the capital
of the U.S. state
, and the county seat
of Marion County
. It is located in the center of the Willamette Valley
alongside the Willamette River
, which runs north through the city. The river forms the boundary between Marion and Polk County
, and the city neighborhood of West Salem
is in Polk County. Salem had a population of 136,924 at the 2000 census
, with an officially estimated population of 154,510 on July 1, 2008, making it the third largest city in the state after Portland
. Salem is the principal city of the Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area
, a metropolitan area
that covers Marion and Polk
counties and had a combined population of 347,214 at the 2000 census
. A 2007 estimate placed the metropolitan population at 378,570, the state's second largest. Salem was founded in 1842, became the capital of the Oregon Territory
in 1851, and was incorporated in 1857. The city is home to Willamette University
and Corban University
, as well as the main city in the Salem-Keizer School District
and is home to the main campus of Chemeketa Community College
. Other schools include the Chemawa Indian School
, Oregon School for the Blind
, and the Oregon School for the Deaf
. The state of Oregon is the largest employer in the city, with Salem Hospital
as the largest private employer. Transportation includes public transit from Salem-Keizer Transit
, Amtrak service
, and non-commercial air travel at McNary Field
. Major roads include Interstate 5
, Oregon Route 99E
, and Oregon Route 22
which connects West Salem across the Willamette River via the Marion Street
and Center Street
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Coordinates: 44°00′N 120°30′W / 44°N 120.5°W