The Hathigumpha inscription("Elephant Cave" inscription), from Udayagiri, near Bhubaneshwar in Orissa, was written by Kharavela, the king of Kalinga in India, during the 2nd century BCE. The Hathigumpha inscription consists of seventeen lines incised in deep cut Brahmi letters on the overhanging brow of a natural cavern called Hathigumpha in the southern side of the Udayagiri hill near Bhubaneswar in Orissa. It faces straight towards the rock Edicts of Asoka at Dhauli situated at a distance of about six miles.
The inscription is written in a type which is considered as one of the most archaic forms of the Kalinga brahmi alphabet, also suggesting a date around 150 BCE.
The inscription is dated to 165th year of the era of the Maurya kings, and the 13th year of Kharavela's reign, which, considering the coronation of Chandragupta in 321 BCE as the probable start of the era, makes a date of 157 BCE for the inscription, a date of 170 BCE for Kharavela's accession, and a date of 162 BCE for the conflict against the Yavana king Demetrius.
Bose was born in Cuttack in the then Bengal Presidency on January 23, 1897. He had his schooling in Cuttack and graduated from Ravenshaw College, Cuttack. He topped the province in the university exams. He also topped the Civil services examinations and was appointed mayor of Calcutta.
Bose participated in the Indian independence movement right from the 1930s. He elected president of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive terms but resigned from the post following ideological conflicts with Mahatma Gandhi. Bose believed that Mahatma Gandhi's tactics of non-violence would never be sufficient to secure India's independence, and advocated violent resistance. He established a separate political party, the All India Forward Bloc and continued to call for the full and immediate independence of India from British rule. He was imprisoned by the British authorities 11 times. At the onset of the war, he escaped from house arrest in India and travelled to the Soviet Union, Germany and Japan, seeking help in forming an anti-British alliance. With Japanese assistance, he re-organised and later led the Indian National Army, formed from Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from British Malaysia, Singapore, and other parts of Southeast Asia, against British forces. The Indian National Army, or the INA, as it was popularly known, followed the trail of Japanese soldiers and reached up to Kohima on the Indian border. However, they were stopped at the Indian border by troops of the British Indian army and faced a crushing defeat at the Battle of Imphal.
Bose is believed to have died under mysterious cricumstances on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash over Taiwan while flying on a mission to Japan.