Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) is a rapid transit system connecting the cities of Newark, Harrison, Hoboken, and Jersey City, in metropolitan northern New Jersey, with the lower and midtown sections of Manhattan in New York City. The PATH is operated by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. PATH trains run 24 hours a day and 7 days a week; four lines operate during the daytime on weekdays, while two lines operate during weekends, late nights, and holidays.
The system contains 13 stations and has a total route length of 13.8 miles (22.2 km), not double-counting route overlaps. PATH trains use tunnels in Manhattan, Hoboken, and downtown Jersey City. The tracks cross the Hudson River through century-old cast iron tubes that rest on the river bottom under a thin layer of silt. The PATH tracks from Grove Street in Jersey City west to Newark Penn Station run in open cuts, at grade level, and on elevated track.
The routes of the PATH system were originally operated by the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (H&M). The railroad's Uptown Hudson Tubes first opened in 1908, followed by the Downtown Hudson Tubes in 1909, and the system was completed by 1911, with 16 stations. The H&M system had reached its peak in 1927, with 113 million passengers, and soon started to decline with the advent of vehicular travel. In 1937, two new stations in Harrison and Newark were built, replacing three existing stations. Two other stations in Manhattan were closed in the mid-20th century. The H&M went into bankruptcy in 1954. It operated under bankruptcy protection until 1962, when the Port Authority took it over and renamed it PATH. In 1971, as part of the construction of the World Trade Center, the Hudson Terminal in Lower Manhattan was replaced by the World Trade Center station. The PATH system was disrupted for several years after the World Trade Center was destroyed on September 11, 2001, and a new transport hub was eventually built at the site of the World Trade Center station.