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Portal:Peru

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The Peru Portal

Introduction

Flag of Peru.svg

Peru (/pəˈr/ (About this soundlisten); Spanish: Perú [peˈɾu]; Quechua: Piruw [pɪɾʊw]; Aymara: Piruw [pɪɾʊw]), officially the Republic of Peru (ES-pe - República del Perú.ogg), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peru has a population of 33 million, and its capital and largest city is Lima. At 1.28 million km2 (0.5 million mi2), Peru is the 19th largest country in the world, and the third largest in South America.

Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization starting in 3500 BCE, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in the pre-Columbian Americas, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 10th millennia BCE.

Peru has a population which includes Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua languages, Aymara, or other Indigenous languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music. (Full article...)

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Volcán Ubinas, Arequipa, Perú, 2015-08-02, DD 50.JPG

Ubinas is an active stratovolcano in the Moquegua Region of southern Peru, approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of the city of Arequipa. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it rises 5,672 metres (18,609 ft) above sea level. The volcano's summit is cut by a 1.4-kilometre-wide (0.87 mi) and 150-metre-deep (490 ft) caldera, which itself contains a smaller crater. Below the summit, Ubinas has the shape of an upwards-steepening cone with a prominent notch on the southern side. The gently sloping lower part of the volcano is also known as Ubinas I and the steeper upper part as Ubinas II; they represent different stages in the volcano's geological history.

The most active volcano in Peru, Ubinas has a history of small to moderate explosive eruptions as well as a few larger eruptions, such as in 1667, along with persistent degassing and ash emissions. Activity at the volcano began in the Pleistocene epoch, and led to the growth of the current mountain in two phases. Among the recent eruptions was the 2006–2007 event, which produced eruption columns and led to ash fall in the region, resulting in health issues and evacuations. During the most recent activity, from 2013 to 2017, a lava flow formed inside the crater, and further ash falls led to renewed evacuations of surrounding towns. Ubinas is monitored by the Peruvian geological service INGEMMET, which has published a volcano hazard map for Ubinas and regular volcanic activity reports. (Full article...)

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Peruvian independence proclamation

The Independence of Peru was proclaimed in Lima by José de San Martín on July 28, 1821. San Martín occupied the city a few days before after Royalist troops retreated towards the Andes. Despite this proclamation the Peruvian War of Independence lasted three more years as Patriot forces lacked the necessary strength to defeat Viceroy José de la Serna. Eventually San Martín left the country and was replaced by Simón Bolívar, under whose guidance the Royalist army was decisively defeated at the Battle of Ayacucho. (more...)

Selected battle

The Cenepa War (January 26 – February 28, 1995), also known as the Alto Cenepa War, was a brief and localized military conflict between Ecuador and Peru, fought over control of a disputed area on the border between the two countries. The indecisive outcome of the conflict — with both sides claiming victory — along with the mediation efforts of the United States of America, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile, paved the way for the opening of diplomatic negotiations that ultimately led to the signing of a definitive peace agreement in 1998, putting an end to one of the longest territorial disputes in the Western Hemisphere. (more...)

In this month

  • August  9, 1970 - Flight LANSA 502 crashes en route from Lima to Cusco killing all but one of the 100 crew and passengers on board.
  • August 15, 2007 - A major earthquake originating off the coast of Peru destroys the city of Pisco.

General images

The following are images from various Peru-related articles on Wikipedia.

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Ecuadorian and Peruvian military outposts in the Cenepa valley, January 1995

The Cenepa War (26 January – 28 February 1995), also known as the Alto Cenepa War, was a brief and localized military conflict between Ecuador and Peru, fought over control of an area in Peruvian territory (i.e. in the eastern side of the Cordillera del Cóndor, Province of Condorcanqui, Región Amazonas, Republic of Perú) near the border between the two countries (see map shown in the infobox). The two nations had signed a border treaty following the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War of 1941, but Ecuador later disagreed with the treaty as it applied to the Cenepa and Paquisha areas, and in 1960 Ecuador declared the treaty null and void.

Mediation efforts of Argentina, Brazil, Chile and the United States paved the way for the opening of diplomatic conversations that ultimately led to the signing of a definitive peace agreement (the Brasilia Presidential Act) on 26 October 1998. The peace agreement was followed by the formal demarcation of the border on 13 May 1999 and the end of the multinational MOMEP (Military Observer Mission for Ecuador and Peru) troop deployment on 17 June 1999 which effectively put an end to one of the longest territorial disputes in the Western Hemisphere. (Full article...)

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Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa

Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, and essayist Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa in The War of the End of the World

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